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Economy-wide effects of reducing the time spent for water fetching and firewood collection in Ethiopia

Abstract

Background

Water fetching and firewood collection are among home activities that are part of the daily routine of many households in rural Ethiopia. Households travel long distances and spend large amounts of time every day for collecting water and firewood. Fetching water and firewood reduce labor available for market related activities such as agriculture that affects production and productivity of these sectors negatively. Better access to water facility and energy efficient technology (such as improved stoves) is expected to release labor for market related activities that can have economy-wide impacts. The objective of this study is to investigate the economy-wide effects of access to water facility and improved stoves.

Methods

The study uses the updated 2004/05 Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) of Ethiopia. The SAM is modified to account for a detailed representation of water fetching, firewood collection and leisure activities and commodities. This study applies a single country Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model to the updated SAM of Ethiopia. The simulation scenario is a 50% increase in the Total Factor Productivity (TFP) of both water fetching and firewood collection activities due to better access to water infrastructure and cooking improved stoves.

Results

The findings of the study show that better access to drinking water supply and improved stoves reduces labor time spent for water fetching and firewood collection. The released labor from water fetching and firewood collection partly reallocated to leisure consumption and partly to market related activities. Those freed labors that are reallocated to marketed sectors including agricultural and non-agricultural activities leads to increase employment and enhance domestic production. Better access to drinking water and improved stoves also enhances household welfare. Households that allocate a relatively large proportion of labor to water fetching and firewood collection gain relatively more welfare. Macroeconomic indicators such as GDP, total domestic production, absorption, and imports are also positively affected due to improved access to water and energy efficient technology.

Conclusions

It is helpful to recognize the economic significance of labor released from water fetching and firewood collection in any developing economy with a limited supply of water facility and access to energy technology.

Background

Access to drinking water and household energy are among the development challenges of developing countries. Approximately, 663 million people around the world lack access to improved drinking water; out of this, 50% live in Sub-Saharan Africa. The target of the United Nation Millennium Development Goal (UNMDG) to reduce the proportion of population without sustainable access to drinking water by half between 1990 and 2015 was unachievable by most of Sub-Saharan Africa countries but there are some on-going positive changes. However, Ethiopia is among one of the countries that successfully achieved this target. During 1990 only 13% of the Ethiopian population had access to improved water but in 2015 half of the population is able to get improved water sources (WHO and UNICEF 2015).

However, the majority of Ethiopian households are currently unable to access drinking water close to their neighbourhood. Only 12% of the Ethiopian population has access to piped water (WHO and UNICEF 2015). The main sources of drinking water for Ethiopian households include public standpipe, protected/unprotected dug well/spring, ponds, lakes and rivers (WHO and UNICEF 2010). These sources of water are usually located far from the neighbourhood of the household. The majority of Ethiopian households often spend several hours per day for collecting drinking water from remote sources. For instance, 16% of urban and 34% of rural household on average travel between 1 and 2 h per trip for water fetching. In rural areas of Ethiopia, household spent a longer hours for fetching water. For example, 10% of rural household on average travel more than 2 h per trip for collecting water (Fig. 1).

Fig. 1
figure1

Source: Author’s compilation based on Central Statistical Agency (2014)

Classification of Ethiopian households by water fetching time per round trip

Ethiopia is also a country where the majority of the population has limited access to electricity. More than 75% of Ethiopians live without access to electricity. Nearly all rural households and 80% of urban households in Ethiopia depend on biomass fuel for cooking (International Energy Agency 2014). Biomass fuel is sourced from firewood, animal dung, and crop residue. The majority of households use a traditional cooking stove which is less energy efficient (Rehfuess et al. 2006). Furthermore, due to underdeveloped road infrastructure and deforestation, households travel long distances and spent several hours for collecting firewood. For example, 22% and 36% of urban and rural households spent more than 2 h per trip to collect firewood respectively (Fig. 2).

Fig. 2
figure2

Source: Author’s compilation based on Central Statistical Agency (2014)

Classification of Ethiopian households by firewood collection time per round trip

Therefore, Ethiopian households allocate significant quantity of labor for water fetching and firewood collection activities. Furthermore, water fetchers and firewood collectors are usually agricultural laborers in Ethiopia. Specifically, fetching water and firewood reduces labor time available for marketed sectors including non-agricultural activities that adversely affects production and productivity of these sectors. The time spent for fetching water and firewood can be significantly reduced through improved access to water infrastructure, and household energy saving technology (for example, improved stoves). The freed labor from water and firewood collection can be partly reallocated to marketed activities or partly reallocated to leisure. Labor reallocated to market related activities would have tremendous economy-wide implications.

Previous studies incorporate aggregate home activities including care of children and the elderly, cooking, cleaning, fetching water and collecting firewood in the CGE model such as Fontana and Wood (2000). Little or no attempts were made to distinguish between the varieties of home activities. Different types of home activities satisfy different objectives and are accomplished by different technologies. Therefore, the innovation of this study is separately depicting labor-intensive home activities such as water fetching and firewood collection and leisure into the economy wide model. The objective of this study is to investigate the economy-wide effects of better access to water facility and improved stoves.

Materials and methods

Data

This study uses the updated 2004/05 Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) of Ethiopia (Mosa 2018). The original 2005/06 SAM of Ethiopia was built by Ethiopian Development Research Institute (EDRI) in cooperation with the University of Sussex (Tebekew et al. 2009). Mosa (2018) updated the 2004/05 SAM of Ethiopia with a detailed representation of water fetching, firewood collection and leisure activities and commodities. Since water fetching and firewood collection are performed by households, distinct water fetching and firewood collection activities are added to the updated SAM in accordance with household classification. Following the approach developed by Fontana and Wood (2000) a separate activity and commodity accounts are created for leisure. Since households consume leisure, leisure activities are added to the SAM in accordance with household classification. Furthermore, distinct commodity accounts are also created for water fetching, firewood collection and leisure. Transactions for water fetching, firewood collection and leisure in the SAM are computed based on the value of labor time allocated to these activities. The values of labor time spend for water fetching, firewood collection and leisure activities are computed based on the shadow wage of labor.

The updated micro-SAM has 199 activities and 95 commodities, 34 representative household groups that are categorized by agro-ecological zones, poverty status and source of non-agricultural income, 10 labor categories that are classified by gender and occupations and 21 other factors of production such as capital and land that are differentiated by agro-ecological zones. The SAM also has 17 tax accounts and other core accounts such as government, investment and the rest of the world. The updated SAM comprises 481 row and column accounts. The updated balanced macro SAM of Ethiopia is depicted in Table 1. Furthermore, the detail micro SAM accounts is provided in Appendix 1.

Table 1 Macro SAM of Ethiopia (in billions Ethiopian birr)

Model

This study applies Static General Equilibrium (STAGE) model (McDonald 2007) to the updated SAM of Ethiopia (Mosa 2018) STAGE is a single country CGE model. It is a Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) based CGE model that has linear and non-linear relationships that govern the behavior of agents in the model. Households choose a bundle of commodities to consume in order to maximize Stone-Geary utility function. The commodities consumed by households are a composite of imported and locally produced commodities. The constant elasticity of substitution (CES) is used to combine imported and locally produced commodities by assuming that these commodities are imperfect substitutes using the Armington assumption (Armington 1969).

Several types of model specific elasticities are used in the calibration of the CGE model applied for this study. Elasticities in the model include commodity, activity and income elasticities. Commodity elasticities involve Armington’s substitution elasticities between imported and domestically produced commodities and the elasticities of transformation between local commodities and export commodities. The commodity elasticities also include export demand elasticities and substitution elasticities for aggregation of commodity output. Activity elasticities cover elasticities of substitution between intermediate inputs and value added input and the substitution between different primary factors such as labor, capital and land in the nested production function. Income elasticities are elasticities for the consumption of different commodities by households. In this study, commodity, activity and Frisch elasticities are adopted from Flaig (2014). On the other hand, most of the income elasticities are adapted from Tafere et al. (2010).

Policy simulations

Simulation scenarios

The construction of drinking water infrastructure around the vicinity of households and providing access to energy technology (such as improved cooking stoves) potentially reduce the time spent on water fetching and firewood collection. This would improve the efficiency of collecting water and firewood as less labor would be required to collect the same amount of water and firewood. Therefore, this study analyses the scenario of an increase in the Total Factor Productivity (TFP) of water fetching and firewood collection activities due to improved access to drinking water and energy technology.

The quantity of labor time freed in response to better access to drinking water supply depends on agro-ecological zone and place of residence (rural vs. urban). This complicates the estimation of the exact amount of time saved because of improved access to drinking water infrastructure. However, the value of time saved from water fetching can be approximated in a certain range of intervals. For instance, Cook et al. (2013) in Oromia region of Ethiopia reported that improved access to water supply can successfully reduce water fetching time by 35% to over 90% per day. Accordingly, in this study, it is assumed that improved access to drinking water supply can reduce the time spent for fetching water on average by 50%.

Similarly, the amount of time saved due to improved access to household energy relies on access to modern cooking technology and availability of traditional source of energy. Empirical evidence by Gaia Consulting Oy and Ethio Resource Group (2012) in Ethiopia indicates that access to improved stove reduces household’s fuel consumption by more than 50%. This led to approximately 50% less firewood collection time. Accordingly, in this study, it is also assumed that in response to improved access to household energy saving services (for example, improved stove), efficiency of firewood collection activities can be increased on average by 50%.

Therefore, the simulation scenario is 50% increase in the TFP of both water fetching and firewood collection activities in response to improved access to water and household energy saving technology.

The cost of financing water and energy infrastructure are obtained from domestic sources or international donors (loans and grants). Specifically, the main sources of financing water and energy infrastructure in Ethiopia are government treasury, user contributions and support from international donors. Indeed, approximately three-fourth of the total national water supply budget is sourced from the treasury of government and the remaining share is covered by international donors and user contribution (World Bank 2016).

In the policy scenario, the funds for constructing drinking water and energy facilities are sourced from government savings and foreign savings (loans and grants). In other words, in order to finance the construction of water infrastructure and energy efficient technology, government savings and foreign savings are exogenously increased in the model. Since government treasury is the largest source of funds in the national water supply budget, the larger share of funds is obtained from the government savings relative to foreign savings. The total government savings are 5.4 billion birr and foreign savings are 10.9 billion birr in the updated SAM.

For approximating the effect of government expenditure on reducing water fetching and firewood collection time, expert opinions and estimates of the budget required for achieving universal water access as defined by the UNMDG are used in this study. According to experts’ opinion, 0.5 to 1.5 h per day per household from water fetching can be saved in Sub-Saharan African countries by achieving universal access to water i.e. a 50% reduction in the share of population that is unable to secure improved drinking water (World Health Organization 2012). Therefore, for this study it is assumed that if Ethiopia achieved universal water access, the average water fetching time will be reduced by 50%.

According to World Bank (2016), the aggregate budget required for achieving universal access to water in Ethiopia is 16.7 billion birr. The country already spent 13.6 billion birr in the year 2012. Therefore, it is assumed that an extra 3.1 (16.7–13.6) billion birr investment is needed for achieving universal water access (World Bank 2016). It is also assumed that the required fund (3.1 billion) is generated through a 37% increase in government savings (i.e. 2 billion birr) and a 10% increase in foreign savings (i.e. 1.1 billion birr). Therefore, for financing water and energy infrastructure, government savings exogenously increase by 37% and foreign savings increase by 10%. Since the government and foreign savings are not channelled to investments, the multiplier effects are not accounted for in this simulation.

Model closure rule

The exchange rate is flexible while the external balance is fixed in the model. The exchange rate is flexible to produce the fixed level of foreign savings for funding water infrastructure and energy efficient technology. Investment driven savings is chosen where investment is fixed and savings are flexible in the model such that savings adjust for the saving-investment balance. Alternatively, savings driven investment closure can be chosen where savings are fixed but investment is flexible to adjust the saving-investment balance to generate the required level of funds for the construction of water and energy infrastructure.

Government raises funds through income tax replacement. Government savings are fixed and income tax rates are endogenously adjusted to produce a fixed level of government savings for financing the construction of water infrastructure and energy efficient technology. Alternatively, government investment (expenditure) is fixed and income tax rates are endogenously adjusted to produce a fixed level of public expenditure for financing water and energy infrastructure. The consumer price index (CPI) is chosen as a numeraire. Furthermore, factor supplies are fixed in the model and in order to enable the mobility of water fetcher and firewood collectors across different sectors, perfect factor mobility is assumed in the model.

Results and discussion

The study examines the impact on labor reallocation across sectors, domestic production, domestic price and household consumption, household’s welfare and implication on major macroeconomic indicators.

Effect on labor reallocation

In rural Ethiopia, water fetching and firewood collection is commonly accomplished by reducing the daily agricultural labor time. On the other hand, in urban parts of the country, unskilled workers commonly collect water and firewood. Water fetching and firewood collection are labor-intensive household activities. An improved TFP of water fetching and firewood collection results in reduction of labor required to perform these activities. Table 2 describes the change in labor demand across sectors in response to improved TFP of water fetching and firewood collection activities.

Table 2 Simulated changes (percentage) in labor demand across sectors

The simulation result indicates that because of a 50% rise in TFP, labor demand declines on average (weighted) by 22.3% for firewood collection and by 21.7% for water fetching activities. Because of better access to water facility, households consume additional water and relatively more labor is required to fetch the extra drinking water. Therefore, the labor demand for water fetching does not decline by the full 50%. On the other hand, employment of labor in agriculture, industry, and service activities increases on average by 1.6%, 0.9% and 0.5% respectively because of absorbing the released labor from water fetching and firewood collection. The agricultural sector absorbs a larger percentage of labor relative to industry and service sectors. This happens because large shares of water fetchers and firewood collectors are agricultural laborers in Ethiopia. Thus, when water fetching and firewood collection activities are effectively accomplished, agriculture absorbs a relatively larger proportion of freed laborers relative to other sectors (such as industry and service). Furthermore, most of the freed laborers prefer to enjoy extra leisure and hence labor is reallocated to leisure (4.6%).

Effect on domestic production

Table 3 depicts the change (weighted) in domestic production because of increased TFP of water fetching and firewood collection activities. Production of water fetching on average increases by 17.5% and firewood collection on average increases by 16.5% due to enhanced TFP. Furthermore, labor released from water fetching and firewood collection is transferred into other sectors and stimulates agricultural and non-agricultural (such as industry and services) production in the destination sector. Production of agriculture, industry and services on average increases by 1.2%, 0.6% and 0.4%, respectively, due to employment of extra labor which is attracted from water fetching and firewood collection. Production in the agricultural sector increases by a higher proportion relative to other sectors (industry and services).

Table 3 Simulated changes (percentage) in domestic production by sectors

Higher TFP in water fetching and firewood collection activities provides larger proportions of released labor for agriculture relative to industry or services and hence production in this sector increases more. Furthermore, the production of leisure increases by 4.6%, which is relatively greater than other sectors such as agriculture, industry, and services. This happens because there was less or no time left for leisure activities when household collects water and firewood from the distant sources and therefore, the freed labor prefers to enjoy leisure and hence more labors are reallocated to leisure. Additionally, the larger production of leisure can be explained by the fact that the consumption of leisure is more sensitive to the income changes relative to other commodities. Therefore, an increase in household income (due to reallocation of labor to income generating activities) raises the demand for leisure that leads to a more production of leisure.

Effect on domestic price and household consumption

In response to higher TFP in water fetching and firewood collection activities, a large amount of labor is released and reallocated to other activities. The labor reallocated to other sectors enhances domestic production (Table 3) and at the same time results in higher income for households through increased factor payments. The simultaneous rise in both domestic production and household income differently affects domestic prices and household consumption. Conceptually, increased domestic production results in higher commodity supply in the market and this can potentially reduce domestic supply prices of commodities (PQS) and purchaser prices (PQD). On the other hand, the freed labor from fetching water and firewood and subsequently reallocated to marketed sectors brings extra income to the households which increases household consumption demand (QCD). This potentially increases domestic prices.

Table 4 describes the percentage change (weighted) in domestic prices and household demand in response to higher TFP in water fetching and firewood collection. The simulation results indicate that because of higher TFP in water fetching and firewood collection, QCD increases for all commodities: agricultural by 1.7%, industrial by 1.3%, services by 0.6%, water fetching by 17.5%, firewood collection by 16.5% and leisure by 4.6%. Domestic prices for agricultural, industrial, and service commodities on average increase by 2.1% and for leisure commodities on average increase by 2.3%. This implies that the effect of increasing income dominates the price effect. The extra income results in upward shift in households’ consumption demand and hence increases domestic prices.

Table 4 Simulated changes (percentage) in domestic price and household demand

On the other hand, household demand for water fetching and firewood collection commodities increases but domestic prices for these commodities decrease on average by 32.2% and 32.1%, respectively. Household demand for water fetching and firewood collection increases by 17.5% and 16.5% respectively. This can be explained by the fact that because of efficiency gains in water fetching and firewood collection, large quantities of water and firewood are produced and supplied to the market. Water and firewood become relatively cheaper and hence consumption demand for these commodities increases (due to income and substitution effects).

Effect on household welfare

Increased TFP of water fetching and firewood collection also affects household welfare. Figure 3 shows the equivalent variation (EV) in percent of base income to examine the actual welfare changes across household groups. Welfare improvement happens to all groups of rural households but the amount of welfare gains varies among households. Different household groups allocate divergent quantities of labor for water fetching and firewood collection. Accordingly, welfare gains depend on household endowment of labor that can be potentially allocated to water fetching and firewood collection. In other words, households that allocate a relatively larger proportion of labor to water fetching and firewood collection obtain high welfare gains. For instance, non-poor and poor rural households in agro-ecology zones 1 and 5 allocate the highest proportion of labor to water fetching and firewood collection relative to other groups of households. Because of increase in the TFP of water fetching and firewood collection, welfare gains by these household groups are higher than to other household groups.

Fig. 3
figure3

Source: Author’s computation based on model results

Simulated changes (percentage) in household welfare (EV/base income)

On the other hand, the divergent share of water and energy consumption expenditure also results in different welfare gains across household groups. The share of consumption expenditure to water and energy commodities differs by household groups. Better access to water and energy infrastructure increases the supply of water and energy and these commodities become relatively cheaper. Households that spend a larger share of their consumption expenditure on water and energy commodities gain more welfare relative to others. For example, poor rural households located in agro-ecology zones 1 and 5 spend a larger proportion of consumption expenditure on water and energy commodities. Because of better access to water and energy facility, the welfare gains to these household groups are higher than to other household groups.

Similarly, the welfare of poor urban households is also positively affected by increasing TFP of water fetching and firewood collection. Since urban households allocate less labor for collecting water and firewood, their welfare gain is lesser than for rural households. However, the welfare of urban non-poor households is negatively affected. This can be explained by the fact that some portions of financing the construction of water and energy facility are obtained from government savings that are raised through income tax. Since urban non-poor households contribute, a larger share of tax to the government, their consumption expenditure decreases and hence welfare declines.

Macroeconomic effects

Reallocation of released labor from water fetching and firewood collection to other sectors creates economy-wide linkages and positively affects the macroeconomic indicators such as gross domestic product (GDP), total domestic production, absorption, import, export and exchange rate.

Figure 4 depicts the macroeconomic effect of higher TFP in water fetching and firewood collection. Total domestic production increases by 2%, GDP by 2.6%, absorption by 2.8%, imports by 1.5% and the exchange rate by 1.3%. The released labor from water fetching and firewood collection is reallocated to productive sectors that accelerate domestic production. This leads to an increase in domestic consumption (absorption) and import. Furthermore, reallocated labor promotes the growth of the economy and hence the GDP increases.

Fig. 4
figure4

Source: Author’s computation based on model results

Macroeconomic impact (percentage changes)

Sensitivity analysis

The sensitivity of model results due to the change in the core model parameters such as the income elasticity of leisure is discussed in this section. Specifically, this section discusses the sensitivity of labor demand, domestic production, household welfare, and major macroeconomic effects due to the change in the income elasticity of leisure. Sensitivity analysis is carried out by changing the income elasticity of leisure from 2 to 3 (50% increase) and 4 (100% increase). The sensitivity of model results in response to the change in income elasticity of leisure is provided in Appendix 2. The percentage change in labor demand and domestic production varies when the income elasticity of leisure increases from 2 to 3 and 4. When the income elasticity of leisure is higher, a larger share of the freed labor gets into leisure and a smaller proportion is reallocated to other sectors (agriculture, industry and services) (see Appendix 2.1 for details).

Household welfare is not very sensitive to the change in the income elasticity of leisure. All groups of households except urban non-poor households have less welfare gains when the income elasticity of leisure increases from 2 to 3 and 4 (see Appendix 2.2 for the details). The reason is that leisure does not create multiplier effects through commodity demand. The macroeconomic indicators such as absorption, import demand, GDP from expenditure and total domestic production also slightly vary due to the change in the income elasticity of leisure. Specifically, absorption, import demand, GDP, and total domestic production increase by a lesser percentage when the income elasticity of leisure is higher (see Appendix 2.3 for the details).

Therefore, the change in the income elasticity of leisure leads to some changes in labor demand, domestic production, household welfare, and major macroeconomic indicators. Although the changes in the income elasticity of leisure result in slight disparities in the magnitude of simulation outcome, the direction of changes remains the same as well as the order of size.

Comparison of results with previous studies

The expansion of improved drinking water infrastructure has both costs and economic benefits. Some of the costs include investment cost (for example, cost associated with the initial construction of the water facility) and recurrent cost (for example, maintenance cost). The benefits of improved access to drinking water supply include health related benefits (for example, reduction of waterborne diseases, less mortality, avoidance of the loss of productive time due to diseases and saved health care expenditure) and the opportunity cost of travel and waiting time saved from fetching water.

The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates the benefit–cost–ratio (BCR) of universal access to improved drinking water for 136 low and middle-income countries in 2012 (World Health Organization 2012). These countries are grouped into nine sub-regions: South-Eastern Asia (S.E.Asia), Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), Latin America and Caribbean (LAC), Southern Asia (S.Asia), Eastern Asia (E.Asia), North Africa (N.Africa), Western Asia (W.Asia), Caucasus and Central Asia (CCA) and Oceania. The BCR was estimated for individual countries initially and then it was aggregated to a region weighted by the respective country’s population.

According to the WHO’s study, the benefits of universal access to drinking water outweigh the costs for most of the countries (Fig. 5). Figure 5 depicts the BCR of universal access to improved drinking water across countries ranging from 0.6 in Oceania to 3.7 in S.Asia. Each additional dollar of investment provided for improved drinking water results in 0.6 to 3.7 dollar worth of benefits. The bigger proportions of these benefits are derived from the opportunity cost of labour time saved due to improved access to water supply.

Fig. 5
figure5

Source: Author’s compilation based on World Health Organization (2012)

BCR of improved access to water supply (US$ return per US$ invested)

On the other hand, improved access to household energy (for example, improved cooking stove) has costs and economic benefits. The costs include the purchase of stoves and installation cost among others. On the other hand, the benefits include health related benefits (reduction of diseases caused by IAP), less expenditure on health care services linked to IAP, productivity gain due to better health, time saved from cooking and fuel collection, environmental benefits (for example, fewer trees cut down). Figure 6 shows the BCR of reducing the share of the population without access to improved cooking stove by 50% across WHO sub-regions. The WHO regions are South-East Asia Region (SEAR), Western Pacific Region (WPR), Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR), and Region of the Americas (AMR), African Region (AFR) and European Region (EUR).

Fig. 6
figure6

Source: Author’s compilation based on Hutton et al. (2006)

BCR of access to improved stove (US$ return per US$ invested)

The estimated BCR of access to improved cooking stove varies across different sub-regions; it ranges from 37.4 to 137.4 in AFR and WPR respectively. Each additional dollar of investments to provide improved stoves results in 37.4 to 137.4 worth of US dollar benefits. The largest share of benefits is derived from the saved time that would have been used for cooking and collecting firewood (Hutton et al. 2006).

Because of the difference in the methodologies used and in the context of case study area, it is not easy to compare the result of this study with the previous studies. Although the methodology applied and the case study areas in the previous studies mentioned above are varied, this study is in consistent with the findings of the previous studies that confirm the cost of providing water facility and improved stoves outweighs the benefits gained.

Conclusions

The findings of this study show that better access to water facility and improved stoves reduces the labor time spent for water fetching and firewood collection. Those freed labor are reallocated to agricultural, non-agricultural activities and/or leisure. This lead to increase employment in all sectors, and enhances domestic production. Households also enjoy extra leisure because of better access to water and energy infrastructure and overall welfare improved. Furthermore, the released labor facilitates aggregate domestic production, consumption and imports and hence growth of the economy. Although the simulation results are sensitive to the change in the income elasticity of leisure, the direction and order of magnitude of results are unaltered in all scenarios.

Improved access to drinking water and improved stoves has health and non-health related benefits such as reduction of waterborne diseases and indoor air pollution, saved health care expenditure, productivity gain due to better health and the time saved from water fetching and firewood collection. However, this study analyzes only the benefits of freed labor from water fetching and firewood collection due to improved access to water infrastructure and improved stoves. Therefore, the economic gains of better access to water and improved stoves are only partially captured by this study.

This study used static model. A similar future work can apply dynamic model for analyzing the time path of benefits derived from investment in water supply and improved stoves. Furthermore, the precision of behavioral parameters such as elasticities in the model can be improved by estimating the value of these elasticities using econometrics.

Availability of data and materials

Some of the data used for this study can be accessed from Ethiopian Development Research Institute. Other support data can be obtained from the corresponding author up on request.

Abbreviations

CGE:

Computable General Equilibrium

CPI:

Consumer price index

GDP:

Gross domestic product

EV:

Equivalent variation

EDRI:

Ethiopian Development Research Institute

Eyleisure:

Income elasticity of leisure

IEA:

International Energy Agency

PQS:

Domestic supply prices

PQD:

Domestic purchaser prices

QCD:

Household consumption demand

STAGE:

Static General Equilibrium Model

SAM:

Social Accounting Matrix

TFP:

Total Factor Productivity

UNMDG:

United Nation Millennium Development Goal

WHO:

World Health Organization

UNICEF:

United Nation International Children’s Fund

OECD:

Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development

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Acknowledgements

We are grateful to Ethiopian Development Research Institute for allowing us to access the Social Accounting Matrix of Ethiopia.

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This paper is part of the corresponding author’s Ph.D. dissertation. The rest authors were supervisor (HG) and co-supervisor (KS) to the corresponding author. Therefore, the corresponding author was the major contributor, the co-author contributed through discussion, reading and approving the final manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

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Correspondence to Abdulaziz Mosa.

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Appendices

Appendix 1: Structure of the updated 2005/06 SAM of Ethiopia

1.1 Activity accounts

1.1.1 Agricultural activities

Abbreviations Descriptions
atef1 Growing teff in zone 1
atef2 Growing teff in zone 2
atef3 Growing teff in zone 3
atef4 Growing teff in zone 4
atef5 Growing teff in zone 5
abar1 Growing barley in zone 1
abar2 Growing barley in zone 2
abar3 Growing barley in zone 3
abar4 Growing barley in zone 4
abar5 Growing barley in zone 5
awhea1 Growing wheat in zone 1
awhea2 Growing wheat in zone 2
awhea3 Growing wheat in zone 3
awhea4 Growing wheat in zone 4
awhea5 Growing wheat in zone 5
amaiz1 Growing maize in zone 1
amaiz2 Growing maize in zone 2
amaiz3 Growing maize in zone 3
amaiz4 Growing maize in zone 4
amaiz5 Growing maize in zone 5
asorg1 Growing sorghum in zone 1
asorg2 Growing sorghum in zone 2
asorg3 Growing sorghum in zone 3
asorg4 Growing sorghum in zone 4
asorg5 Growing sorghum in zone 5
apul1 Growing pulses in zone 1
apul2 Growing pulses in zone 2
apul3 Growing pulses in zone 3
apul4 Growing pulses in zone 4
apul5 Growing pulses in zone 5
avegfr1 Growing vegetable and nec in zone 1
avegfr2 Growing vegetable and nec in zone 2
avegfr3 Growing vegetable and nec in zone 3
avegfr4 Growing vegetable and nec in zone 4
avegfr5 Growing vegetable and nec in zone 5
aoils1 Growing oil seeds in zone 1
aoils2 Growing oil seeds in zone 2
aoils3 Growing oil seeds in zone 3
aoils4 Growing oil seeds in zone 4
aoils5 Growing oil seeds in zone 5
acash1 Growing cash crops nec in zone 1
acash2 Growing cash crops nec in zone 2
acash3 Growing cash crops nec in zone 3
acash4 Growing cash crops nec in zone 4
acash5 Growing cash crops nec in zone 5
aenset1 Growing enset in zone 1
aenset2 Growing enset in zone 2
aenset3 Growing enset in zone 3
aenset4 Growing enset in zone 4
aenset5 Growing enset in zone 5
acrop1 Growing crop nec in zone 1
acrop2 Growing crop nec in zone 2
acrop3 Growing crop nec in zone 3
acrop4 Growing crop nec in zone 4
acrop5 Growing crop nec in zone 5
acoff1 Growing coffee in zone 1
acoff2 Growing coffee in zone 2
acoff3 Growing coffee in zone 3
acoff4 Growing coffee in zone 4
alivst1 Livestock farming in zone 1
alivst2 Livestock farming in zone 2
alivst3 Livestock farming in zone 3
alivst4 Livestock farming in zone 4
alivst5 Livestock farming in zone 5
afisfor Forestry and fishing

1.1.2 Industrial activities

Abbreviations Descriptions
amining Mining
aofood Production, processing of food and related products
adairy Manufacturing of dairy products
agmill Manufacturing of grain mill products
agmillserv Manufacturing of grain mill services
asug Manufacture of sugar
abev Manufacturing of beverage products
amtob Manufacturing of tobacco products
atext Manufacturing of textile products
aapar Manufacturing of wearing apparels
aleath Manufacturing of leather products
awood Manufacturing of wood and products of wood
apaperp Manufacture of paper and paper products
achem Chemicals products manufacturing
aminprod Mineral products manufacturing
abmetalp Manufacturing metal products
amach Machinery manufacturing
aelecq Electronic equipments manufacturing
aveh Motor vehicles manufacturing
aomanu Furniture and related products manufacturing

1.1.3 Service activities

Abbreviations Descriptions
aelect Electricity
awater Collection purification and distribution of water
acons Service of construction
atrad Trade
ahotel Hotel
atrncom Transport, communication and storage
afserv Financial intermediation
arest Real estate, business activities and renting
apadmin Public administration
aeduc Education
aheal Health
aoserv Business activities and related social services

1.1.4 Water fetching activities

Abbreviations Descriptions
awfHH-Rural_EZ1Pagr Water fetching by HH-Rural_EZ1Pagr
awfHH-Rural_EZ1Pmix Water fetching by HH-Rural_EZ1Pmix
awfHH-Rural_EZ1Pnagr Water fetching by HH-Rural_EZ1Pnagr
awfHH-Rural_EZ2Pagr Water fetching by HH-Rural_EZ2Pagr
awfHH-Rural_EZ2Pmix Water fetching by HH-Rural_EZ2Pmix
awfHH-Rural_EZ2nagr Water fetching by HH-Rural_EZ2nagr
awfHH-Rural_EZ3Pagr Water fetching by HH-Rural_EZ3Pagr
awfHH-Rural_EZ3Pmix Water fetching by HH-Rural_EZ3Pmix
awfHH-Rural_EZ3Pnagr Water fetching by HH-Rural_EZ3Pnagr
awfHH-Rural_EZ4Pagr Water fetching by HH-Rural_EZ4PPagr
awfHH-Rural_EZ4Pmix Water fetching by HH-Rural_EZ4Pmix
awfHH-Rural_EZ4Pnagr Water fetching by HH-Rural_EZ4Pnagr
awfHH-Rural_EZ5Pagr Water fetching by HH-Rural_EZ5Pagr
awfHH-Rural_EZ5Pmix Water fetching by HH-Rural_EZ5Pmix
awfHH-Rural_EZ5Pnagr Water fetching by HH-Rural_EZ5Pnagr
awfHH-Rural_EZ1NPagr Water fetching by HH-Rural_EZ1NPagr
awfHH-Rural_EZ1NPmix Water fetching by HH-Rural_EZ1NPmix
awfHH-Rural_EZ1NPnagr Water fetching by HH-Rural_EZ1NPnagr
awfHH-Rural_EZ2NPagr Water fetching by HH-Rural_EZ2NPagr
awfHH-Rural_EZ2NPmix Water fetching by HH-Rural_EZ2NPmix
awfHH-Rural_EZ2NPnagr Water fetching by HH-Rural_EZ2NPnagr
awfHH-Rural_EZ3NPagr Water fetching by HH-Rural_EZ3NPagr
awfHH-Rural_EZ3NPmix Water fetching by HH-Rural_EZ3NPmix
awfHH-Rural_EZ3NPnagr Water fetching by HH-Rural_EZ3NPnagr
awfHH-Rural_EZ4NPagr Water fetching by HH-Rural_EZ4NPagr
awfHH-Rural_EZ4NPmix Water fetching by HH-Rural_EZ4NPmix
awfHH-Rural_EZ4NPnagr Water fetching by HH-Rural_EZ4NPnagr
awfHH-Rural_EZ5NPagr Water fetching by HH-Rural_EZ5NPagr
awfHH-Rural_EZ5NPmix Water fetching by HH-Rural_EZ5NPmix
awfHH-Rural_EZ5NPnagr Water fetching by HH-Rural_EZ5NPnagr
awfHH-SmallurbanP Water fetching by HH-SmallurbanP
awfHH-BigurbanP Water fetching by HH-BigurbanP
awfHH-SmallurbanNP Water fetching by HH-SmallurbanNP
awfHH-BigurbanNP Water fetching by HH-BigurbanNP

1.1.5 Firewood collection activities

Abbreviations Descriptions
afwHH-Rural_EZ1Pagr Firewood collection by HH-Rural_EZ1Pagr
afwHH-Rural_EZ1Pmix Firewood collection by HH-Rural_EZ1Pmix
afwHH-Rural_EZ1Pnagr Firewood collection by HH-Rural_EZ1Pnagr
afwHH-Rural_EZ2Pagr Firewood collection by HH-Rural_EZ2Pagr
afwHH-Rural_EZ2Pmix Firewood collection by HH-Rural_EZ2Pmix
afwHH-Rural_EZ2nagr Firewood collection by HH-Rural_EZ2nagr
afwHH-Rural_EZ3Pagr Firewood collection by HH-Rural_EZ3Pagr
afwHH-Rural_EZ3Pmix Firewood collection by HH-Rural_EZ3Pmix
afwHH-Rural_EZ3Pnagr Firewood collection by HH-Rural_EZ3Pnagr
afwHH-Rural_EZ4PPagr Firewood collection by HH-Rural_EZ4PPagr
afwHH-Rural_EZ4Pmix Firewood collection by HH-Rural_EZ4Pmix
afwHH-Rural_EZ4Pnagr Firewood collection by HH-Rural_EZ4Pnagr
afwHH-Rural_EZ5Pagr Firewood collection by HH-Rural_EZ5Pagr
afwHH-Rural_EZ5Pmix Firewood collection by HH-Rural_EZ5Pmix
afwHH-Rural_EZ5Pnagr Firewood collection by HH-Rural_EZ5Pnagr
afwHH-Rural_EZ1NPagr Firewood collection by HH-Rural_EZ1NPagr
afwHH-Rural_EZ1NPmix Firewood collection by HH-Rural_EZ1NPmix
afwHH-Rural_EZ1NPnagr Firewood collection by HH-Rural_EZ1NPnagr
afwHH-Rural_EZ2NPagr Firewood collection by HH-Rural_EZ2NPagr
afwHH-Rural_EZ2NPmix Firewood collection by HH-Rural_EZ2NPmix
afwHH-Rural_EZ2NPnagr Firewood collection by HH-Rural_EZ2NPnagr
afwHH-Rural_EZ3NPagr Firewood collection by HH-Rural_EZ3NPagr
afwHH-Rural_EZ3NPmix Firewood collection by HH-Rural_EZ3NPmix
afwHH-Rural_EZ3NPnagr Firewood collection by HH-Rural_EZ3NPnagr
afwHH-Rural_EZ4NPagr Firewood collection by HH-Rural_EZ4NPagr
afwHH-Rural_EZ4NPmix Firewood collection by HH-Rural_EZ4NPmix
afwHH-Rural_EZ4NPnagr Firewood collection by HH-Rural_EZ4NPnagr
afwHH-Rural_EZ5NPagr Firewood collection by HH-Rural_EZ5NPagr
afwHH-Rural_EZ5NPmix Firewood collection by HH-Rural_EZ5NPmix
afwHH-Rural_EZ5NPnagr Firewood collection by HH-Rural_EZ5NPnagr
afwHH-SmallurbanP Firewood collection by HH-SmallurbanP
afwHH-BigurbanP Firewood collection by HH-BigurbanP
afwHH-SmallurbanNP Firewood collection by HH-SmallurbanNP
afwHH-BigurbanNP Firewood collection by HH-BigurbanNP

1.1.6 Leisure activities

Abbreviations Descriptions
aLHH-Rural_EZ1Pagr Leisure enjoyed by HH-Rural_EZ1Pagr
aLHH-Rural_EZ1Pmix Leisure enjoyed by HH-Rural_EZ1Pmix
aLHH-Rural_EZ1Pnagr Leisure enjoyed by HH-Rural_EZ1Pnagr
aLHH-Rural_EZ2Pagr Leisure enjoyed by HH-Rural_EZ2Pagr
aLHH-Rural_EZ2Pmix Leisure enjoyed by HH-Rural_EZ2Pmix
aLHH-Rural_EZ2nagr Leisure enjoyed by HH-Rural_EZ2nagr
aLHH-Rural_EZ3Pagr Leisure enjoyed by HH-Rural_EZ3Pagr
aLHH-Rural_EZ3Pmix Leisure enjoyed by HH-Rural_EZ3Pmix
aLHH-Rural_EZ3Pnagr Leisure enjoyed by HH-Rural_EZ3Pnagr
aLHH-Rural_EZ4Pagr Leisure enjoyed by HH-Rural_EZ4Pagr
aLHH-Rural_EZ4Pmix Leisure enjoyed by HH-Rural_EZ4Pmix
aLHH-Rural_EZ4Pnagr Leisure enjoyed by HH-Rural_EZ4Pnagr
aLHH-Rural_EZ5Pagr Leisure enjoyed by HH-Rural_EZ5Pagr
aLHH-Rural_EZ5Pmix Leisure enjoyed by HH-Rural_EZ5Pmix
aLHH-Rural_EZ5Pnagr Leisure enjoyed by HH-Rural_EZ5Pnagr
aLHH-Rural_EZ1NPagr Leisure enjoyed by LHH-Rural_EZ1NPagr
aLHH-Rural_EZ1NPmix Leisure enjoyed by HH-Rural_EZ1NPmix
aLHH-Rural_EZ1NPnagr Leisure enjoyed by HH-Rural_EZ1NPnagr
aLHH-Rural_EZ2NPagr Leisure enjoyed by HH-Rural_EZ2NPagr
aLHH-Rural_EZ2NPmix Leisure enjoyed by HH-Rural_EZ2NPmix
aLHH-Rural_EZ2NPnagr Leisure enjoyed by HH-Rural_EZ2NPnagr
aLHH-Rural_EZ3NPagr Leisure enjoyed by HH-Rural_EZ3NPagr
aLHH-Rural_EZ3NPmix Leisure enjoyed by HH-Rural_EZ3NPmix
aLHH-Rural_EZ3NPnagr Leisure enjoyed by HH-Rural_EZ3NPnagr
aLHH-Rural_EZ4NPagr Leisure enjoyed by HH-Rural_EZ4NPagr
aLHH-Rural_EZ4NPmix Leisure enjoyed by HH-Rural_EZ4NPmix
aLHH-Rural_EZ4NPnagr Leisure enjoyed by HH-Rural_EZ4NPnagr
aLHH-Rural_EZ5NPagr Leisure enjoyed by HH-Rural_EZ5NPagr
aLHH-Rural_EZ5NPmix Leisure enjoyed by HH-Rural_EZ5NPmix
aLHH-Rural_EZ5NPnagr Leisure enjoyed by HH-Rural_EZ5NPnagr
aLHH-SmallurbanP Leisure enjoyed by HH-SmallurbanP
aLHH-BigurbanP Leisure enjoyed by HH-BigurbanP
aLHH-SmallurbanNP Leisure enjoyed by HH-SmallurbanNP
aLHH-BigurbanNP Leisure enjoyed by HH-BigurbanNP

1.2 Commodity accounts

1.2.1 Agricultural marketed commodities

Abbreviations Descriptions
ctef Teff
cbar Barley
cwhea Wheat
cmaiz Maize
csorg Sorghum
cpul Pulse
cveg Vegetable
coils Oil seed
ccotts Cotton seed
ccane Sugar cane
cfruit Fruit crops
ctea Tea
cchat Chat
ccoff Coffee
censet Enset
ccrop Cereal grain and other crop
cfiber Plant based fiber
ccatt Cattle
cpoul Poultry and other small livestock
cmilk Raw milk
ccott Raw cotton
caprod Animal product
cfors Forestry products
cflower Flowers
cfish Fish

1.2.2 Industrial marketed commodities

Abbreviations Descriptions
ccoal Coal
cngas Gas
cmin Minerals
cmeat Meat
cvprod Vegetable
cdairy Dairy products
csug Sugar
cgmill Grain mill
cgmillserv Grain mill services
cfood Food
cbev Beverages
ctob Tobacco
cmtea Tea manufacturing
cmtob Tobacco manufacturing
clcott Cotton
ctext Textiles
capar Wearing apparels
cleath Leather
cwood Wood
cpaper Paper product
coilptrl Petroleum coal
cfert Fertilizers
cchem Chemicals
cminprod Mineral
cmetal Metals
cmprod Products of metal
cveh Motor vehicles
celecq Electronic equipment
cmach Machinery
comanu Products of manufacturing

1.2.3 Marketed services

Abbreviations Descriptions
celect Electricity
cwater Water
ccons Construction
ctrad Trade
chotel Hotel
ctrans Transport service
ccomm Communication
cfserv Financial service
cbserv Business service
cpadmin Public administration
ceduc Education
cheal Health
coserv Recreation and others
crest Real estate and renting services

1.2.4 Home consumed agricultural commodities

Abbreviations Descriptions
cmaizo Maize
coilso Oil seed
cvego Vegetable
cwheao Wheat
cbaro Barley
cfruito Fruit crops
csorgo Sorghum
ctefo Teff
cpulo Pulses
ccaneo Sugar cane
cchato Chat
ccoffo Coffee
censeto Enset
ccropo Grains
cpoulo Poultry
cmilko Raw milk
ccotto Raw cotton

1.2.5 Home consumed processed (industrial) commodities

Abbreviations Descriptions
caprodo Animal products
cforso Products of forestry
cfisho Fish
cmeato Meat
cdairyo Dairy products

1.2.6 Home consumed service commodities

Abbreviations Descriptions
cresto Housing

1.2.7 Water fetching commodities

Abbreviations Descriptions
cwfHH-Rural_EZ1Pagr Water consumed by HH-Rural_EZ1Pagr
cwfHH-Rural_EZ1Pmix Water consumed by HH-Rural_EZ1Pmix
cwfHH-Rural_EZ1Pnagr Water consumed by HH-Rural_EZ1Pnagr
cwfHH-Rural_EZ2Pagr Water consumed by HH-Rural_EZ2Pagr
cwfHH-Rural_EZ2Pmix Water consumed by HH-Rural_EZ2Pmix
cwfHH-Rural_EZ2nagr Water consumed by HH-Rural_EZ2nagr
cwfHH-Rural_EZ3Pagr Water consumed by HH-Rural_EZ3Pagr
cwfHH-Rural_EZ3Pmix Water consumed by HH-Rural_EZ3Pmix
cwfHH-Rural_EZ3Pnagr Water consumed by HH-Rural_EZ3Pnagr
cwfHH-Rural_EZ4Pagr Water consumed by HH-Rural_EZ4Pagr
cwfHH-Rural_EZ4Pmix Water consumed by HH-Rural_EZ4Pmix
cwfHH-Rural_EZ4Pnagr Water consumed by HH-Rural_EZ4Pnagr
cwfHH-Rural_EZ5Pagr Water consumed by HH-Rural_EZ5Pagr
cwfHH-Rural_EZ5Pmix Water consumed by HH-Rural_EZ5Pmix
cwfHH-Rural_EZ5Pnagr Water consumed by HH-Rural_EZ5Pnagr
cwfHH-Rural_EZ1NPagr Water consumed by HH-Rural_EZ1NPagr
cwfHH-Rural_EZ1NPmix Water consumed by HH-Rural_EZ1NPmix
cwfHH-Rural_EZ1NPnagr Water consumed by HH-Rural_EZ1NPnagr
cwfHH-Rural_EZ2NPagr Water consumed by HH-Rural_EZ2NPagr
cwfHH-Rural_EZ2NPmix Water consumed by HH-Rural_EZ2NPmix
cwfHH-Rural_EZ2NPnagr Water consumed by HH-Rural_EZ2NPnagr
cwfHH-Rural_EZ3NPagr Water consumed by HH-Rural_EZ3NPagr
cwfHH-Rural_EZ3NPmix Water consumed by HH-Rural_EZ3NPmix
cwfHH-Rural_EZ3NPnagr Water consumed by HH-Rural_EZ3NPnagr
cwfHH-Rural_EZ4NPagr Water consumed by HH-Rural_EZ4NPagr
cwfHH-Rural_EZ4NPmix Water consumed by HH-Rural_EZ4NPmix
cwfHH-Rural_EZ4NPnagr Water consumed by HH-Rural_EZ4NPnagr
cwfHH-Rural_EZ5NPagr Water consumed by HH-Rural_EZ5NPagr
cwfHH-Rural_EZ5NPmix Water consumed by HH-Rural_EZ5NPmix
cwfHH-Rural_EZ5NPnagr Water consumed by HH-Rural_EZ5NPnagr
cwfHH-SmallurbanP Water consumed by HH-SmallurbanP
cwfHH-BigurbanP Water consumed by HH-BigurbanP
cwfHH-SmallurbanNP Water consumed by HH-SmallurbanNP
cwfHH-BigurbanNP Water consumed by HH-BigurbanNP

1.2.8: Firewood collection commodities

Abbreviations Descriptions
cfwHH-Rural_EZ1Pagr Firewood consumed by HH-Rural_EZ1Pagr
cfwHH-Rural_EZ1Pmix Firewood consumed by HH-Rural_EZ1Pmix
cfwHH-Rural_EZ1Pnagr Firewood consumed by HH-Rural_EZ1Pnagr
cfwHH-Rural_EZ2Pagr Firewood consumed by HH-Rural_EZ2Pagr
cfwHH-Rural_EZ2Pmix Firewood consumed by HH-Rural_EZ2Pmix
cfwHH-Rural_EZ2nagr Firewood consumed by HH-Rural_EZ2nagr
cfwHH-Rural_EZ3Pagr Firewood consumed by HH-Rural_EZ3Pagr
cfwHH-Rural_EZ3Pmix Firewood consumed by HH-Rural_EZ3Pmix
cfwHH-Rural_EZ3Pnagr Firewood consumed by HH-Rural_EZ3Pnagr
cfwHH-Rural_EZ4Pagr Firewood consumed by HH-Rural_EZ4Pagr
cfwHH-Rural_EZ4Pmix Firewood consumed by HH-Rural_EZ4Pmix
cfwHH-Rural_EZ4Pnagr Firewood consumed by HH-Rural_EZ4Pnagr
cfwHH-Rural_EZ5Pagr Firewood consumed by HH-Rural_EZ5Pagr
cfwHH-Rural_EZ5Pmix Firewood consumed by HH-Rural_EZ5Pmix
cfwHH-Rural_EZ5Pnagr Firewood consumed by HH-Rural_EZ5Pnagr
cfwHH-Rural_EZ1NPagr Firewood consumed by HH-Rural_EZ1NPagr
cfwHH-Rural_EZ1NPmix Firewood consumed by HH-Rural_EZ1NPmix
cfwHH-Rural_EZ1NPnagr Firewood consumed by HH-Rural_EZ1NPnagr
cfwHH-Rural_EZ2NPagr Firewood consumed by HH-Rural_EZ2NPagr
cfwHH-Rural_EZ2NPmix Firewood consumed by HH-Rural_EZ2NPmix
cfwHH-Rural_EZ2NPnagr Firewood consumed by HH-Rural_EZ2NPnagr
cfwHH-Rural_EZ3NPagr Firewood consumed by HH-Rural_EZ3NPagr
cfwHH-Rural_EZ3NPmix Firewood consumed by HH-Rural_EZ3NPmix
cfwHH-Rural_EZ3NPnagr Firewood consumed by HH-Rural_EZ3NPnagr
cfwHH-Rural_EZ4NPagr Firewood consumed by HH-Rural_EZ4NPagr
cfwHH-Rural_EZ4NPmix Firewood consumed by HH-Rural_EZ4NPmix
cfwHH-Rural_EZ4NPnagr Firewood consumed by HH-Rural_EZ4NPnagr
cfwHH-Rural_EZ5NPagr Firewood consumed by HH-Rural_EZ5NPagr
cfwHH-Rural_EZ5NPmix Firewood consumed by HH-Rural_EZ5NPmix
cfwHH-RuralE_Z5NPnagr Firewood consumed by HH-Rural_EZ5NPnagr
cfwHH-SmallurbanP Firewood consumed by HH-SmallurbanP
cfwHH-BigurbanP Firewood consumed by HH-BigurbanP
cfwHH-SmallurbanNP Firewood consumed by HH-SmallurbanNP
cfwHH-BigurbanNP Firewood consumed by HH-BigurbanNP

1.2.9 Leisure commodities

Abbreviations Descriptions
cLHH-Rural_EZ1Pagr Leisure enjoyed by HH-Rural_EZ1Pagr
cLHH-Rural_EZ1Pmix Leisure enjoyed by HH-Rural_EZ1Pmix
cLHH-Rural_EZ1Pnagr Leisure enjoyed by HH-Rural_EZ1Pnagr
cLHH-Rural_EZ2Pagr Leisure enjoyed by HH-Rural_EZ2Pagr
cLHH-Rural_EZ2Pmix Leisure enjoyed by HH-Rural_EZ2Pmix
cLHH-Rural_EZ2nagr Leisure enjoyed by HH-Rural_EZ2nagr
cLHH-Rural_EZ3Pagr Leisure enjoyed by HH-Rural_EZ3Pagr
cLHH-Rural_EZ3Pmix Leisure enjoyed by HH-Rural_EZ3Pmix
cLHH-Rural_EZ3Pnagr Leisure enjoyed by HH-Rural_EZ3Pnagr
cLHH-Rural_EZ4Pagr Leisure enjoyed by HH-Rural_EZ4Pagr
cLHH-Rural_EZ4Pmix Leisure enjoyed by HH-Rural_EZ4Pmix
cLHH-Rural_EZ4Pnagr Leisure enjoyed by HH-Rural_EZ4Pnagr
cLHH-Rural_EZ5Pagr Leisure enjoyed by HH-Rural_EZ5Pagr
cLHH-Rural_EZ5Pmix Leisure enjoyed by HH-Rural_EZ5Pmix
cLHH-Rural_EZ5Pnagr Leisure enjoyed by HH-Rural_EZ5Pnagr
cLHH-Rural_EZ1NPagr Leisure enjoyed by HH-Rural_EZ1NPagr
cLHH-Rural_EZ1NPmix Leisure enjoyed by HH-Rural_EZ1NPmix
cLHH-Rural_EZ1NPnagr Leisure enjoyed by HH-Rural_EZ1NPnagr
cLHH-Rural_EZ2NPagr Leisure enjoyed by HH-Rural_EZ2NPagr
cLHH-Rural_EZ2NPmix Leisure enjoyed by HH-Rural_EZ2NPmix
cLHH-Rural_EZ2NPnagr Leisure enjoyed by HH-Rural_EZ2NPnagr
cLHH-Rural_EZ3NPagr Leisure enjoyed by HH-Rural_EZ3NPagr
cLHH-Rural_EZ3NPmix Leisure enjoyed by HH-Rural_EZ3NPmix
cLHH-Rural_EZ3NPnagr Leisure enjoyed by HH-Rural_EZ3NPnagr
cLHH-Rural_EZ4NPagr Leisure enjoyed by HH-Rural_EZ4NPagr
cLHH-Rural_EZ4NPmix Leisure enjoyed by HH-Rural_EZ4NPmix
cLHH-Rural_EZ4NPnagr Leisure enjoyed by HH-Rural_EZ4NPnagr
cLHH-Rural_EZ5NPagr Leisure enjoyed by HH-Rural_EZ5NPagr
cLHH-Rural_EZ5NPmix Leisure enjoyed by HH-Rural_EZ5NPmix
cLHH-Rural_EZ5NPnagr Leisure enjoyed by HH-Rural_EZ5NPnagr
cLHH-SmallurbanP Leisure enjoyed by HH-SmallurbanP
cLHH-BigurbanP Leisure enjoyed by HH-BigurbanP
cLHH-SmallurbanNP Leisure enjoyed by HH-SmallurbanNP
cLHH-BigurbanNP Leisure enjoyed by HH-BigurbanNP

1.3 Household accounts

Abbreviations Descriptions
HH-Rural_EZ1Pagr Household rural zone 1 poor agricultural
HH-Rural_EZ1Pmix Household rural zone 1 poor mixed
HH-Rural_EZ1Pnagr Household rural zone 1 poor non-agricultural
HH-Rural_EZ2Pagr Household rural zone 2 poor agricultural
HH-Rural_EZ2Pmix Household rural zone 2 poor mixed
HH-Rural_EZ2nagr Household rural zone 2 poor non-agricultural
HH-Rural_EZ3Pagr Household rural zone 3 poor agricultural
HH-Rural_EZ3Pmix Household rural zone 3 poor mixed
HH-Rural_EZ3Pnagr Household rural zone 3 poor non-agricultural
HH-Rural_EZ4Pagr Household rural zone 4 poor agricultural
HH-Rural_EZ4Pmix Household rural zone 4 poor mixed
HH-Rural_EZ4Pnagr Household rural zone 4 poor non-agricultural
HH-Rural_EZ5Pagr Household rural zone 5 poor agricultural
HH-Rural_EZ5Pmix Household rural zone 5 poor mixed
HH-Rural_EZ5Pnagr Household rural zone 5 poor non-agricultural
HH-Rural_EZ1NPagr Household rural zone 1 non-poor agricultural
HH-Rural_EZ1NPmix Household rural zone 1 non-poor mixed
HH-Rural_EZ1NPnagr Household rural zone 1 non-poor non-agricultural
HH-Rural_EZ2NPagr Household rural zone 2 non-poor agricultural
HH-Rural_EZ2NPmix Household rural zone 2 non-poor mixed
HH-Rural_EZ2NPnagr Household rural zone 2 non-poor non-agricultural
HH-Rural_EZ3NPagr Household rural zone 3 non-poor agricultural
HH-Rural_EZ3NPmix Household rural zone 3 non-poor mixed
HH-Rural_EZ3NPnagr Household rural zone 3 non-poor non-agricultural
HH-Rural_EZ4NPagr Household rural zone 4 non-poor agricultural
HH-Rural_EZ4NPmix Household rural zone 4 non-poor mixed
HH-Rural_EZ4NPnagr Household rural zone 4 non-poor non-agricultural
HH-Rural_EZ5NPagr Household rural zone 5 non-poor agricultural
HH-Rural_EZ5NPmix Household rural zone 5 non-poor mixed
HH-Rural_EZ5NPnagr Household rural zone 5 non-poor non-agricultural
HH-SmallurbanP Household small urban poor
HH-BigurbanP Household big urban poor
HH-SmallurbanNP Household small urban non-poor
HH-BigurbanNP Household big urban non-poor

1.4 Factor accounts

1.4.1 Labor accounts

Abbreviations Descriptions
Agrm Agricultural labor male
Agrf Agricultural labor female
Admm Administrative labor male
Admf Administrative labor female
Profm Professional labor male
Proff Professional labor female
Unskm Unskilled labor male
Unskf Unskilled labor female
Skm Skilled labor male
Skf Skilled labor female

1.4.2 Non-labor factors

Abbreviations Descriptions
Capital_Land_RuralEZ1P Capital land for rural poor in zone 1
Capital_Land_RuralEZ1NP Capital land for rural non-poor in zone 1
Capital_Land_RuralEZ2P Capital land for rural poor in zone 2
Capital_Land_RuralEZ2NP Capital land for rural non-poor in zone 2
Capital_Land_RuralEZ3P Capital land for rural poor in zone 3
Capital_Land_RuralEZ3NP Capital land for rural non-poor in zone 3
Capital_Land_RuralEZ4P Capital land for rural poor in zone 4
Capital_Land_RuralEZ4NP Capital land for rural non-poor in zone 4
Capital_Land_RuralEZ5P Capital land for rural poor in zone 5
Capital_Land_RuralEZ5NP Capital land for rural non-poor in zone 5
Capital_Livst_RuralEZ1P Capital livestock for rural poor in zone 1
Capital_Livst_RuralEZ1NP Capital livestock for rural non-poor in zone 1
Capital_Livst_RuralEZ2P Capital livestock for rural poor in zone 2
Capital_Livst_RuralEZ2NP Capital livestock for rural non-poor in zone 2
Capital_Livst_RuralEZ3P Capital livestock for rural poor in zone 3
Capital_Livst_RuralEZ3NP Capital livestock for rural non-poor in zone 3
Capital_Livst_RuralEZ4P Capital livestock for rural poor in zone 4
Capital_Livst_RuralEZ4NP Capital livestock for rural non-poor in zone 4
Capital_Livst_RuralEZ5P Capital livestock for rural poor in zone 5
Capital_Livst_RuralEZ5NP Capital livestock for rural non-poor in zone 5
Non_Agg_capital Non-agricultural capital

1.5 Other accounts

Abbreviations Descriptions
ENT Enterprises
GOVT Government
TotalMargin Transport margins
DSTOC Stock changes
KAP Savings
ROW Rest of the world

1.6 Tax accounts

Abbreviations Descriptions
LandTx Land use tax
CapGainTx Capital gains tax
IntIncTax Interest income tax
RentIncTx Rental income tax
DivTx Dividend tax
ProfitTx Profit tax
AgIncTx Income tax (agricultural)
HHIncTx Income tax (personal)
OEntTx Other direct taxes
Impsur Surtax from import
ImpVAT Value added tax from import
ImpEcsTx Excise tax from import
ImpWTx Import withholding tax
ImpDuty Import tax
ServTx Service tax
LocEcsTx Domestic excise tax
LocalVAT Domestic value added tax

Appendix 2: Sensitivity of model results to changes in the income elasticity of leisure

2.1 Sensitivity of labor demand and production (percentage)

Labor demand by activities Eyleisure* = 2 Eyleisure= 3 Eyleisure= 4
Agriculture 1.61 1.16 0.82
Industry 0.88 1.07 1.28
Service 0.54 0.81 1.10
Water fetching − 21.65 − 23.56 − 24.91
Firewood collection − 22.35 − 24.13 − 25.39
Leisure 4.62 5.63 6.34
Production by activities Eyleisure = 2 Eyleisure = 3 Eyleisure = 4
Agriculture 1.21 0.89 0.65
Industry 0.59 0.61 0.63
Service 0.42 0.48 0.55
Water fetching 17.53 14.66 12.64
Firewood collection 16.48 13.81 11.91
Leisure 4.62 5.63 6.34
  1. Source: Author’s computation based on model results
  2. *Eyleisure: refers to the income elasticity of leisure

2.2 Sensitivity of welfare (EV/base income) to changes in the income elasticity of leisure

Households Eyleisure = 2 Eyleisure = 3 Eyleisure = 4
HH-Rural_EZ1Pagr 6.88 6.82 6.80
HH-Rural_EZ1Pmix 6.88 6.82 6.80
HH-Rural_EZ1Pnagr 6.88 6.82 6.80
HH-Rural_EZ2Pagr 4.88 4.89 4.91
HH-Rural_EZ2Pmix 4.88 4.89 4.91
HH-Rural_EZ2nagr 4.88 4.89 4.91
HH-Rural_EZ3Pagr 5.35 5.34 5.34
HH-Rural_EZ3Pmix 5.35 5.34 5.34
HH-Rural_EZ3Pnagr 5.35 5.34 5.34
HH-Rural_EZ4Pagr 4.84 4.85 4.86
HH-Rural_EZ4Pmix 4.98 4.96 4.95
HH-Rural_EZ4Pnagr 4.98 4.96 4.95
HH-Rural_EZ5Pagr 6.94 6.76 6.64
HH-Rural_EZ5Pmix 6.94 6.76 6.64
HH-Rural_EZ5Pnagr 6.94 6.76 6.64
HH-Rural_EZ1NPagr 5.16 5.12 5.10
HH-Rural_EZ1NPmix 5.16 5.12 5.10
HH-Rural_EZ1NPnagr 5.16 5.12 5.10
HH-Rural_EZ2NPagr 3.19 3.16 3.13
HH-Rural_EZ2NPmix 3.19 3.16 3.13
HH-Rural_EZ2NPnagr 3.19 3.16 3.13
HH-Rural_EZ3NPagr 3.86 3.83 3.82
HH-Rural_EZ3NPmix 3.86 3.83 3.82
HH-Rural_EZ3NPnagr 3.76 3.75 3.74
HH-Rural_EZ4NPagr 3.46 3.41 3.37
HH-Rural_EZ4NPmix 3.46 3.41 3.37
HH-Rural_EZ4NPnagr 3.46 3.41 3.37
HH-Rural_EZ5NPagr 5.69 5.52 5.40
HH-Rural_EZ5NPmix 5.69 5.52 5.40
HH-Rural_EZ5NPnagr 5.69 5.52 5.40
HH-SmallurbanP 1.50 1.31 1.12
HH-BigurbanP 1.91 1.85 1.80
HH-SmallurbanNP − 3.75 − 4.03 − 4.28
HH-BigurbanNP − 1.54 − 1.72 − 1.89
  1. Source: Author’s computation based on model results

2.3 Sensitivity of macroeconomic effects (percentage) to changes in the income elasticity of leisure

 Real macroeconomic indicators Eyleisure = 2 Eyleisure = 3 Eyleisure = 4
Absorption 2.76 2.64 2.67
Import 1.50 1.43 1.38
GDP from expenditure 2.62 2.56 2.52
Total domestic production 2.00 1.96 1.93
  1. Source: Author’s computation based on model results

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Mosa, A., Grethe, H. & Siddig, K. Economy-wide effects of reducing the time spent for water fetching and firewood collection in Ethiopia. Environ Syst Res 9, 20 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1186/s40068-020-00189-y

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Keywords

  • Water fetching
  • Firewood collection
  • Computable general equilibrium model
  • Social accounting matrix
  • Total factor productivity
  • Ethiopia