Skip to main content

Table 3 Mean concentrations of rare earth elements (REES) in samples

From: Human health and environmental assessments of small-scale and artisanal mining activities in the Gold City of Ijeshaland, Southwestern Nigeria

  Surface water Groundwater Sediment Fish muscle Fish gill Fish gut
Mean (µg L−1) SD Mean (µg L−1) SD Mean (µg kg−1) SD Mean (µg kg−1) SD Mean (µg kg−1) SD Mean (µg kg−1) SD
Ce 0.24 0.44 0.15 0.29 31.30 62.42 8.94 9.66 6.58 10.50 15.85 17.76
Dy <0.01   0.03 0.05 0.02 0.01 0.26 0.29 0.26 0.41 0.51 0.60
Er <0.01   0.02 0.03 7.25 2.25 0.95 1.34 0.10 0.15 0.33 0.32
Eu <0.01   0.01 0.01 98.50 94.22 0.05 0.06 0.06 0.11 0.12 0.15
Gd 0.02 0.03 0.05 0.07 0.04 0.02 0.36 0.40 0.41 0.68 0.73 0.83
Ho <0.01 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.15 0.17 0.07 0.05 0.04 0.05 0.10 0.12
La 0.13 0.25 0.53 0.90 16.67 28.88 3.58 3.02 3.57 3.46 5.99 6.86
Lu <0.01 0.001 0.01 0.001 <0.01   0.02 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.04 0.04
Nd 0.10 0.16 0.29 0.46    2.64 2.98 2.61 4.29 5.01 5.83
Pr 0.03 0.04 0.08 0.11    0.66 0.75 0.64 1.04 1.28 1.47
Sc 1.00 0.65 0.81 0.63    0.63 0.25 0.88 0.76 0.88 0.75
Sm 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.06    0.45 0.50 0.54 0.88 0.86 1.02
Tb 0.01 0.001 0.01 0.01    0.07 0.05 0.07 0.10 0.10 0.12
Tm 0.01 0.001 0.01 0.001    0.02 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.03 0.04
Y 0.08 0.17 0.47 0.79         
Yb 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.02         
  1. SD standard deviation