- Open Access
A vigorous simple most extreme force point tracker for pv battery charger
© The Author(s) 2016
Received: 28 May 2016
Accepted: 31 October 2016
Published: 14 November 2016
This paper proposes the dynamic way of utilizing the maximum power from solar for battery charger by means of maximum power point tracker with the new controlling parameter for improving the stability in power system network. The most efficient controller for PV related voltage converters is designed by the most efficient way of calculating the controlling parameter for MPPT of a PV battery charger which works in a full range condition with consistent changing environment. Other than this, another strong controller parameter is presented.
Ideal MPPT calculations give PV current or voltage reference esteem as output controller parameter, in which frequent change in atmosphere may bring framework precariousness. Here, another variable is characterized to kill the issue and enhance the soundness of the framework. So as to contrast the introduced circuit and a traditional framework, Perturb and Observe (P&O) MPPT calculation which is surely understood in PV frameworks is actualized on the same framework.
Re-enactment results (Conventional P&O calculation and proposed structure) are displayed and thought about which show execution and adequacy of the proposed simple MPPT circuit.
As PV module contributes vast part of the framework cost (Enslin et al. 1997) ideal usage is attractive, subsequently discovering ideal working point which is the point, of maximum power separated from PVs is a customary objective in planning the control framework (Sundareswaran et al. 2014; Sera et al. 2013; Weidong et al. 2013). There are two significant methodologies for power extraction; sun following the maximum power point (MPP) (Ts et al. 2002). Solar amplifies the power, as illumination point influences the PV voltage–current (V–I) trademark significant to Kelly-cosine connection, yet it is not in the extent of this paper.
A few calculations are produced for MPPT for entire system by considering the atmospheric conditions, mainly including power (Applebaum 1987; Braunstein and Zinger 1981), curve (Kislovski and Redl 1994; Wolf and Enslin 1993), slope Perturb & Observe (P&O) strategy. The impacts of supplying DC–DC converter from most maximum power source of PV array. Gow and Manning (2000) P &O MPPT procedure for accomplishing versatile following, no relentless state motions around the MPP and provides a nonspecific outline core (Abdelsalam et al. 2011) is integrated MPPT Converter as a part of the PV board. It is a practical and exceptionally proficient (Enslin et al. 1997) incremental conductance method PV Array, Power Conditioning, Control, DC Load, these four subsystem are tentatively conveys out (Nafeh et al. 1999).
MPT calculation in view of the way that the MPOP of a PV generator can be followed precisely by looking at the incremental and quick conductance of the PV cluster (Hussein et al. 1995), isolating rectangles calculation maximum power point following methodology for a photovoltaic framework utilizing the partitioning rectangles calculation, and it is equipped for hunting down worldwide greatest (Nguyen and Low 2010). A novel ES calculation uses (Petrone et al. 2011) the normal inverter swell was tried on a mimicked exhibit inverter framework (Brunton et al. 2010) extreme looking for (ES) control and swell connection control (RCC) is actualized. ES control, the examination exhibited there shows generally. RCC soundness and working properties are additionally tended to where the key distinction amongst RCC and prevalent ES control strategies is the bother source (Bazzi and Krein 2011) a food forward MP-point following plan is produced for the coupled-inductor interleaved-support converter-bolstered PV framework utilizing a fluffy controller (Veerachary et al. 2003). The new controller enhances the slope climbing look strategy by fuzzifying the tenets of such methods and wipes out their disadvantages (Alajmi et al. 2011). Comparative tests demonstrate that the proposed strategy can track the progression reaction rapidly and precisely; in the meantime show signs of improvement enhancement result. Zhou et al. (2011) neural system has a very straightforward structure and gives a profoundly precise recognizable proof of the ideal working point furthermore an exceedingly exact estimation of the most extreme force from the PV modules Hiyama et al. (1995) demonstrated that no less than 19 unmistakable techniques have been presented in the writing, with numerous minor departure from usage (Esram and Chapman 2007) assessments among the most normal MPPT systems, doing significant examinations concerning the measure of vitality removed from the photovoltaic board (PV) (tracking factor—TF) in connection to the accessible force, PV voltage swell, dynamic reaction and utilization of sensors (Berito et al. 2013).
These strategies need computerized handling to apply, either in a microcontroller (MCU) or FPGA which expand framework many-sided quality and aggregate cost particularly undesirable in little scale frameworks. Keeping in mind the end goal to evade these, few simple circuits are proposed.
In Chen and Smedley (2004), a simple MPPT in light of one-cycle control (OCC) is proposed, it works well the length of the board temperature variety is little, as this paper concentrates on little compact frameworks used to charge rechargeable batteries, this constraint is basic. A few frameworks utilizing differentiators (Alonso et al. 2006 and Lee et al. 2008) are not appealing, on account of clamor affectability. In Bodur and Ermis (1994), MPPT is determined by clearing PV voltage from 0 V to open circuit voltage (VOC) occasionally. The framework is not powerful in view of requirement for periodical scope.
Another framework utilizing a pilot PV system is proposed in Tariq and Asghar (2005). The pilot PV board, with attributes like that of fundamental PV system, is kept under no-heap condition. A small amount of the pilot PV VOC, which relates to MPP voltage (VMPP), is utilized as the reference voltage. This strategy is not productive particularly for little frameworks while initial PV ought to be kept open circuit. The other issue is that the qualities of stacked and emptied boards contrast amid lifetime.
Liang et al. (2010) and Hsieh et al. (2010) proposed a simple circuit to actualize P&O calculation, however it experiences many-sided quality and requiring a circuit to capacity PV voltage and force in any progression.
The simple MPPT displayed in (Ji et al. 2010), works by direct control of exchanging order. This prompts variable exchanging recurrence which is not alluring in light of EMC issues and yield current and voltage administrative issues (Villalva et al. 2010).
In this paper a basic simple circuit for MPPT execution of a close planetary system is proposed which is well-working in all meteorological conditions and has an altered recurrence. Another controlling parameter is likewise displayed which enhances the security of the framework.
This paper is sorted out as takes after. The proposed simple circuit and working guideline are portrayed in segment II. Segment III makes a survey on issue of routine controlling variables and presents the new one with a talk on outline criteria. The aftereffects of reproductions for the proposed framework and customary computerized P&O MPPT calculation and the examination are introduced in segment IV. The exploratory set-up and the outcomes are delineated in area V.
Limitations of the existing work
In the existing work for any variation in solar irradiance or any abrupt changes in atmospheric condition the output power on the grid side fluctuates due to solar output power fluctuations. The concept in the existing work is MPPT controller P&O algorithm. The MPPT charge controller ensures that the loads receive maximum current to be used (by quickly charging the battery) and the maximum power point could be understood as an ideal voltage at which the maximum power is delivered to the loads, with minimum losses. The existing MPPT controller with P&O algorithm has the following disadvantages. (i) Real peak solar PV curve cant be identified if there is any shadow on solar clustered array (ii) P&O algorithm is slow to find the maximum peak if the solar voltage is far from MPP.
The reference signal developed at the output of the algorithm is unstable due to frequent change in atmospheric condition. Dur to this variation in the reference signal, the output power fluctuates very badly, causing instability in power system framework. To avoid the cause of instability problem, a new controlling factor ‘S’ is incorporated in the proposed scheme. The controlling factor has constant K0, K1, K2 constants for controlling the reference controlling parameter S for abrupt input change.
Deriving energy conversion
Novel supervisory variable
Predictably controller affords Vor I ref as the output and uses PV sway as th ref e contribution parameter for implementation of MPPT algorithm. In the proposed systems, rapid weather change, or a to a degree of sudden shadow on PV module which cause a sudden change in V–I characteristic of PV module may result in system instability while following the set value, and thus the PI controller saturates and hence any further step change in the reference value of Vref/Iref causes the output to be ineffective, therefore PV output power remains constant and the defined MPPT algorithm fails to find MPP, when V ref /I ref remnants superior than new short circuit PV current (I sc ) or newfangled open circuit PV voltage (V oc ). Alternatively unsteadiness occurs when V ref /I ref falls out of range of variations V PV /I PV . This instability is a major problem in PV modules with piercing V–I physical characteristics.
In order to guarantee MPPT working for different conditions, it is necessary to calculate the controlling factor S ref . This relies between the minimum and maximum instantaneous values of S according to the worst condition.
Circuit design and stability analysis
In order to analyze the stability of the system, small signal model of the charger using a buck–boost converter as dc/dc converter is derived.
Small signal model while using S as control parameter
Simulation and experimental results
S is used as controlling variable to implement both the algorithms. The scenario of simulating illumination is described in the following.
90% illumination at first 0.1 s time interval then gradually increase to 100% illumination for 0.1 s time interval, and remaining constant till t = 0.3 s. Finally sudden change to 80% illumination at t = 0.3 s.
In the proposed manuscript dynamic control scheme is presented to analyze the performance of a three-phase grid-connected PV system and to enhance the dynamic stability limit with the change in atmospheric conditions by utilizing the new control factor. The projected controller setup cancels all possible nonlinearities by converting the entire PV system into two decoupled linear subsystems with stable internal dynamics by incorporating the control variable ‘S’. The DC link voltage and current from solar PV system controlled by MPPT P&O algorithm with controlling script is injected into grid are controlled to ensure the operation of the PV system at unity power factor and in Stable condition. From the simulation results, it is clear that the controller performs better under varying atmospheric conditions. Future work will deal with the expansion of the projected method by considering the mismatches within the solar PV model and to implement it on a large interrelated structure.
TY implemented the MPPT tracer. RK formed the experimental scheme. Both authors read and approved the final manuscript.
We acknowledge Sri Sai Ram College of Engineering Research and Development Section.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.
- Abdelsalam A, Massoud A, Ahmed S, Enjeti P (2011) High-performance adaptive perturb and observe MPPT technique for photovoltaic-based microgrids. IEEE Trans Power Electron 26:1010–1021View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Alajmi B, Ahmed K, Finney S, Williams B (2011) Fuzzy-logic-control approach of a modified hill-climbing method for maximum power point in microgrid standalone photovoltaic system. IEEE Trans Power Electron 26:1022–1030View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Alonso R, Queinnec I, Pastor A, Lagrange D, Salamero L (2006) MPPT of photovoltaic systems using extremum-seeking control. IEEE Trans Aerosp Electron Syst 42:249–258View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Applebaum J (1987) The quality of load matching in a direct-coupling photovoltaic system. IEEE Trans Energy Convers 2:534–541View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bazzi A, Krein P (2011) Concerning maximum power point tracking for photovoltaic optimization using ripple-based extremum seeking control. IEEE Trans Power Electron 26:1611–1612View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Berito M, Galotto L, Sampaio L, Azevedo M, Canesin C (2013) Evaluation of the main MPPT techniques for photovoltaic applications. IEEE Trans Ind Electron 60:1156–1167View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bodur M, Ermis M. Maximum power point tracking for low power photovoltaic solar panels. In: IEEE 1994 mediterranean electrotechnical conference; 12–14 April 1994; Antalya, Turkey. pp. 758–761Google Scholar
- Braunstein A, Zinger Z (1981) On the dynamic optimal coupling of a solar cell array to a load and storage batteries. IEEE Trans Power Apparat Syst 100:1183–1188View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Brunton S, Rowley C, Kulkarni S, Clarkson C (2010) Maximum power point tracking for photovoltaic optimization using ripple-based extremum seeking control. IEEE Trans Power Electron 25:2531–2540View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chen Y, Smedley K (2004) A cost-effective single-stage inverter with maximum power point tracking. IEEE Trans Power Electron 19:1289–1294View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Doris E, Gelman R. The Role of Policy in Clean Energy Market Transformation, US Department of Energy, Technical Report, 2011; NREL/TP-6A20-49193Google Scholar
- Enslin J, Wolf M, Snyman D, Swiegers W (1997) Integrated photovoltaic maximum power point tracking converter. IEEE Trans Ind Electron 44:769–773View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Esram T, Chapman P (2007) Comparison of photovoltaic array maximum power point tracking techniques. IEEE Trans Energy Convers 22:439–449View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Gow J, Manning C (2000) Controller arrangement for boost converter systems sourced from solar photovoltaic arrays or other maximum power sources. IEEE Electric Power Appl 147:15–20View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hiyama T, Kuouzuma S, Imakubo T (1995) Identification of optimal operating point of PV modules using neural network for real time maximum power tracking control. IEEE Trans Energy Convers 10:360–367View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hsieh C, Yang C, Feng F, Chen K. A photovoltaic system with an analog maximum power point tracking technique for 97.3% high effectiveness. In: IEEE 2010 European solid state circuits conference; 14–16 September 2010; Sevilla, Spain. pp. 230–23Google Scholar
- Hussein K, Muta I, Hoshino T, Osakada M (1995) Maximum photovoltaic power tracking: an algorithm for rapidly changing atmosphere conditions. IEEE Gener Transm Distrib 142:59–64View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ji S, Jang D, Han S, Roh C, Hong S. Analog control algorithm for maximum power tracker employed in photovoltaic applications. In: IEEE 2010 international power electronics conference; 27–29 Oct. 2010; Singapore. pp. 99-103Google Scholar
- Kislovski A, Redl R. Maximum-power-tracking using positive feedback. In: IEEE 1994 power electronics specialists conference; 20–25 June 1994; Taipei, Taiwan. pp. 1065–1068Google Scholar
- Lee K, Niu J, Lin G. A simplified analog control circuit of a maximum power point tracker. In: IEEE 2008 photovoltaic specialists conference; 11–16 May 2008; San Diego, California, USA. pp. 1–3Google Scholar
- Liang Z, Guo R, Huang A. A new cost-effective analog maximum power point tracker for PV systems. In: IEEE 2010 energy conversion congress and exposition; 12–16 September 2010; Atlanta, GA, USA. pp. 624–631Google Scholar
- Nafeh A, Fahmy F, Mahgoub O, El-Zahab E (1999) Microprocessor control system for maximum power operation of PV arrays. Int J Numer Model 12:187–195View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Nguyen T, Low K (2010) A global maximum power point tracking scheme employing direct search algorithm for photovoltaic systems. IEEE Trans Ind Electron 57:3456–3467View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Petrone G, Spagnuolo G, Vitelli M (2011) A multivariable perturb-and-observe maximum power point tracking technique applied to a single-stage photovoltaic inverter. IEEE Trans Ind Electron 58:76–84View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sera D, Mathe L, Kerekes T, Spataru S, Teodorescu R (2013) On the perturb-and-observe and incremental conductance MPPT methods for PV systems. IEEE J Photovolt 3:1070–1078View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sundareswaran K, Peddapati S, Palani S (2014) MPPT of PV systems under partial shaded conditions through a colony of flashing fireflies. IEEE Trans Energy Convers 29:463–472View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Tariq A, Asghar M. Development of an Analog Maximum Power Point Tracker for Photovoltaic Panel. In: IEEE 2005 international power electronics and drives systems; 28 November 2005–1 December 2005; Malaysia. pp. 251–255Google Scholar
- Ts K, Ho M, Chung H, Hui S (2002) A novel maximum power point tracker for PV panels using switching frequency modulation. IEEE Trans Power Electron 17:980–989View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Veerachary M, Senjyu T, Uezato K (2003) Neural-network-based maximum-power-point tracking of coupled-inductor interleaved-boost-converter-supplied PV system using fuzzy controller. IEEE Trans Ind Electron 50:749–758View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Villalva MG, Siqueira TG, Ruppert E (2010) Voltage regulation of photovoltaic arrays: small-signal analysis and control design. IET Power Electron 3:869–880View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Weidong X, Zeineldim H, Zhang P (2013) Statistic and parallel testing procedure for evaluating maximum power point tracking algorithms of photovoltaic power systems. IEEE J Photovoltaics 3:1062–1069View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wolf S, Enslin J. Economical PV maximum power point tracking regulator with simplistic controller. In: IEEE 1993 power electronics specialists conference; 20–24 June 1993; Seattle, Washington. USA. pp. 581–587Google Scholar
- Zhou L, Chen Y, Guo K, Jia F (2011) New approach for MPPT control of photovoltaic system with mutative-scale dual-carrier chaotic search. IEEE Trans Power Electron 26:1038–1048View ArticleGoogle Scholar