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Table 2 Main field trials completed on oil or gas sub-sea releases (Guyomarch 2002)

From: Dispersants as marine oil spill treating agents: a review on mesoscale tests and field trials

Date Field test name Objective Description Observations
1975 Topham Check-up of OILMAP model predictions Release of air from 60 m deep  
1983 Milgram Gas release from 50 m deep  
1995 Norwegian sea trials (Brandvik et al. 1996) Pipeline rupture Simulation Low pressure oil release from 100 m deep Large oil droplets which reached the sea surface quickly
1996 Norwegian sea trials (Rye and Brandvik 1997) Sub-sea blowout simulation High pressure oil (60m3) with air release from 102 m deep Small oil droplets
Natural dispersion (only 10–20% of oil reached the sea surface)
2000 Deep Spill (Johansen et al. 2001) Sub-sea blowout simulation 4 releases (oil, seawater, gas) from 850 m deep Total dissolution of gas in the water column
Oil reaches the surface in one hour