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Table 1 Range of various physico-chemical parameters of Hokersar wetland from 1978 to 2012–2013

From: Physico-chemical limnology of a shallow lake in the floodplains of western Himalaya from last four decades: present status

Parameters Kaul et al. (1978) Handoo (1978) Pandit (1980) Khan (2000) Rather et al. (2001) Rather and Pandit (2002) Pandit and Kumar (2006) Present study (2012–13)
Air temperature (C°) 6.8–31.5
Water temp. (C°) 4.6–29.2 6.9–29.0 3.0–27.0 5.7–31.3
Depth (m) 0.66–1.12 0.5–1.6 0.13–1.6 0.15–0.63 0.54–0.63 0.4–2.7
Transparency (m)    0.11–0.55 0.54–1.22 31.7–96.7 (%)
pH 7.2–9.0 7.2–9.0 7.4–8.5 7.2–8.5 7.4–9.0 7.5–8.6 7.32–8.10 7.1–8.2
Dissolved oxygen (mg/L) 3.20–12.50 3.20–12.50 4.0–8.02 4.5–8.0 2.6–15.20 2.25–12.50 1.9–11.4 2.4–10.1
Free carbon dioxide (mg/L) 8–31.7
Alkalinity (mg/L) 85.0–256.0 85–256.0 98.0–268.0 50.0–415.0 68.02–352.0 119.0–240.0 91.3–254.7
Total hardness (mg/L) 69–214
Calcium (mg/L) 24.0–61.0 23.60–61.60 33.0–49.0 26.45–54.30 30.5–45.8 27.3–39.6 44.2–107.2
Magnesium (mg/L) 11.0–18.0 2.50–7.40 11.0–17.0 7.05–16.74 9.0–16.2 2.4–8.2 6.2–28.1
Chloride (mg/L)     8.0–70.0 10.0–32.0 17.0–28.0 10.3–39.3
Orthophosphate (µg/L) 112.0–306 112.0–306.0 22.0–54.0 40.0–255.0 44.0–161.0 33.0–141.0 50.7–165
Total phosphate (µg/L) 155.0–325 155.0–306.0 80.0–415.0 115.0–535.0 113.0–373.0 116.0–307.0 104.7–259.3
Ammonical nitrogen (µg/L) 3.0–10.0 3.0–9.0 16.0–69.0 65.0–425.0 83.0–395.0 81.0–173.0 16.7–242.3
Nitrate nitrogen (µg/L) 104.0–327.0 154–327.0 73.0–621.0 150–520.0 186.0–420.0 269.0–622.0 226.3–631.3