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Table 2 Parameters sensitive to streamflow, their default range, fitted value during calibration and final values used in SWAT model for streamflow simulations

From: The impact of future climate and land use/cover change on water resources in the Ndembera watershed and their mitigation and adaptation strategies

Parameter Description SUFI2 fitted value Default SWAT range Final value in SWAT model
v__SURLAG.bsn Surface runoff lag time (days) 20.76 0.05 to 24 20.76
v__ESCO.bsn Soil evaporation compensation factor 0.83 0 to 1 0.83
a__GWQMN.gw Threshold depth of water in the shallow aquifer for return flow to occur (mm H2O) 217.08 0 to 5000 1217.08
a__GW_REVAP.gw Groundwater “revap” coefficient 0.03 0.02 to 0.2 0.05
a__REVAPMN.gw Threshold depth of water in the shallow aquifer for “revap” to occur (mm H2O) 236.07 0 to 1000 986.07
v__ALPHA_BF.gw Baseflow alpha factor (days) 0.83 0 to 1 0.83
v__SHALLST.gw Initial depth of water in the shallow aquifer 1263.00 0 to 5000 1263.00
v__RCHRG_DP.gw Deep aquifer percolation fraction 0.63 0 to 1 0.63
v__GW_DELAY.gw Groundwater delay (days) 18.25 0 to 500 18.25
v__CH_N2.rte Manning’s “n” value for the main channel 0.11 − 0.01 to 0.3 0.11
v__EPCO.hru Plant uptake compensation factor 0.50 0 to 1 0.50
a__OV_N.hru Manning’s “n” value for overland flow 28.86 0.01 to 30 28.86
a__CANMX.hru Maximum canopy storage (mm H2O) 10.78 0 to 100 10.78
a__SLSUBBSN.hru Average slope length (m) 40.45 10 to 150 131.91
a__HRU_SLP.hru Average slope steepness (m/m) 0.44 0.3 to 0.6 0.47
a__SOL_AWC().sol Available water capacity of the soil layer (mm H2O/mm soil) − 0.06 0 to 1 0.04
a__SOL_K().sol Saturated soil hydraulic conductivity (mm/h) 21.37 0 to 2000 39.02
a__CH_K1.sub Effective hydraulic conductivity in main channel alluvium (mm/h) 85.56 0 to 300 85.56
a__CN2.mgt Initial SCS runoff curve number for moisture condition II − 1.87 35 to 98 83.13
  1. a__means absolute; a given value is added to the existing parameter value during the calibration
  2. v__means replace; the existing parameter value is to be replaced by a given value during the calibration