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Table 1 Description of publications included in the study

From: The effect of household storage tanks/vessels and user practices on the quality of water: a systematic review of literature

Author (Year) Study/ record title Study objectives/research questions/ hypotheses Location Water supply source(s) Independent variables Water quality indicators Sampling technique and sample size Sampling locations/points
Ziadat (2005) Impact of storage tanks on drinking water quality in Al-Karak Province-Jordan To assess the impact of storing water in galvanised steel storage tanks on the quality of drinking water from the physical and chemical perspective under semi-arid conditions such as Al-Karak Province-Jordan Jordan Groundwater, wells, and Springs Tank material, capacity of the tank Major Anions (HCO3, F_, Cl-, NO3, SO4 ), Major Cations (Na+, Mg2+, K+, Ca2+) Heavy Metals (Pb, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Ni) Stratified random Sampling- Sample size n = 100 tanks Tanks and water sources
Schafer (2010) Impact of tank material on water quality in household water storage systems in Cochabamba, Bolivia To determine how the materials used to construct household water storage tanks and user operation/maintenance impact on physical, chemical, and microbial quality of water in household storage tanks, and document water quality as the water flows from the treatment plant through the distribution system to the user Cochabamba Bolivia Piped water Tank material, age, frequency of cleaning, cleaning items/objects Temperature (Temp), pH Turbidity, Electrical conductivity(EC), Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) Total Coliforms, E. coli, Total Chlorine, Free Chlorine, Fe, Cu, NO3, SO4, Pb, Alkalinity, Iron Related Bacteria, Heterotrophic, Aerobic Bacteria, Slime Forming Bacteria Purposive and simple random sampling- n = 37 tanks, 14 underground cisterns, 9 points in the treatment plant and, 7 points in the distribution network Elevated storage tanks, underground cisterns, water treatment plant, distribution network
Al-Bahrya et al. (2013) Opportunistic and microbial pathogens in municipal water distribution systems To evaluate microbial regrowth in relation to chlorine, surface adherent biofilms, and the presence of pathogenic microbes that may affect public health in the municipal water
distribution system.
Al-Hail in Muscat, Oman Piped water (Municipal Water) Tank material Total heterotrophic plate count (THPC), Total coliform bacilli (TC), autotrophic microorganisms (algae), faecal coliforms, Salmonella spp, Yersinia spp, Legionella spp, Aeromonas spp, Pseudomonas, and Pasteurella spp. Simple random sampling-n = 30 Tanks, distribution, source
Graham and VanDerslice (2007) The effectiveness of large household water storage tanks for protecting the quality of drinking water (1) Evaluate water quality from different drinking water sources used by Colonia residents; (2) Evaluate how the intervention (the installation of the large storage tanks) affected drinking water quality; and (3) Study how the delivery of water affects water quality at different points during the transport of water from the standpipe where delivery trucks fill their tanks to delivery of water to the home El Paso
County, Texas
Municipal Supply, Vending Machines, Tanker trucks Tank material Residual chlorine, turbidity, total coliforms, and E. coli Simple random sampling-n = 120 Tanks and water sources
Al-Ghanim et al. (2014) Assessment of water quality for some roof tanks in Alkharj Governorate, KSA To carry out a sanitary survey of the roof water tanks in different areas located in Al-Kharj Governorate and assess the water quality in these tanks relative to the SASO drinking water standards and other international guidelines specified by the World Health Organization (WHO) (1993) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (2003) that gauge the safety of water supplies destined for human consumption. Alkharj Governorate, Saudi Arabia Piped Water Tank features like material, Age, cover, exterior paint, exterior ladder, interior ladders, wash water pipe, float valve pH, TDS, free
residual chlorine, alkalinity, and total hardness, Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Ni, and Zn, faecal coliforms, E. coli, faecal streptococci
Stratified random Sampling, n = 10 Storage tanks
Akuffo et al. (2013) Assessment of the quality of water before and after storage in the Nyankpala community of the Tolon-Kumbungu District, Ghana To assess the quality of stored water in different storage facilities in the Nyankpala community in northern
Tolon-Kumbungu District, Ghana   Storage vessel material residual chlorine, turbidity, total coliforms, and E. coli Sample Size n = 120 Water Source, Tanks
Chalchisa et al. (2017) Assessment of the quality of drinking water in storage tanks and its implication on the safety of urban water supply in developing countries To assess physicochemical and bacteriological qualities of tap water stored in water storage tanks Jimma town, Jimma Zone, Oromia, south-west of Ethiopia Piped water Condition of tanks e.g. damages, and cover pH, turbidity, Temp, total coliform, faecal coliform Sample Size n = 19 Water before entering and after leaving the tank
Chia et al. (2013) Domestic water quality assessment: microalgal and Cyanobacterial contamination of stored water in plastic tanks in Zaria, Nigeria To investigate the microalgal and cyanobacterial contamination of storage water tanks as a means of assessing domestic water quality in Zaria, Nigeria Zaria, Nigeria Piped Water Water Source, tank size, age, frequency of cleaning, tank covering, tank colour Temp, pH, EC, Turbidity, Hardness, Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), TDS, NO3, PO4, Phytoplankton analysis, Sample Size n = 60 Tanks
Duru et al. (2013) Effect of different storage vessels on water quality To investigate the effect of different
storage vessels on water quality
Umuekebi, Osu-owerre, Isiala
Mbano L.G.A of Imo State, Nigeria
Water spring vessel/ container material pH, colour, odour, taste, temp, turbidity, total alkalinity, carbonate, total organic carbon, TS, TDS, TSS, DO, BOD, chemical oxygen demand (COD), chloride, PO4, SO4, Ca, Cu, Mn, Cd, Cr, Zn, Fe, Pb, Ni, As, Acinetobacter spp., Micrococcus luteus, Serratiamarcescens, Klebsiellapneumoniae, Staphylococcuaureus, E. coli, Proteus vulgaris, Shigelladysenteriae Chromobacteria Species Sample Size n = 20 Vessels/Containers
Schafer and Mihelcic (2012) Effect of storage tank material and maintenance on household water quality To determine how the materials used to manufacture large household water storage tanks and how user maintenance influence physical, chemical, and microbial quality of stored water. To document water quality as the water flows from the treatment plant to the user Tiquipaya, Bolivia Tank material, age, frequency of cleaning, cleaning items/objects Temp, pH Turbidity, EC, DO, TDS, Total Coliforms, E. coli, Total Chlorine, Free Chlorine, Fe, Cu, NO3, SO4, Pb, alkalinity, Iron Related Bacteria, Heterotrophic
Aerobic Bacteria, Slime Forming Bacteria
Purposive, simple random sampling n = 36 Tanks, distribution, source
Packiyam et al. (2016) Effect of storage containers on coliforms in household drinking water To investigate the effect of storage of water in 10 different vessels on the stored water quality by comparing the total population of the coliform present in the water before and after storage for different periods Madippakam, Chennai, India Bore well Tank/ vessel type pH, EC, TDS, total coliform, fecal coliform bacteria Sample size n = 30 times Source, water vessels (Samples analysed before and after being stored)
Mohanan et al. (2017) The effect of different types of storage vessels on water quality To determine the effect of different storage vessels on the purity of water and thereby protect and promote human health. Kottayam district, India River water Tank/ vessel type Temp, TDS, EC, pH, salinity, alkalinity, hardness, DO, BOD, COD, Cu, total colony count, total coliform Sample Size n = 8 Source, storage vessels
Ogbozige et al. (2018) Effect of storage time and container material on potable water quality Investigating the impact of storage container materials on water quality during storage, in order to understand the container material that best preserves water quality during storage and the maximum retention period for storing water in any of them. Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria Piped water from treatment plant Storage material, time of storage Temp, colour, total solids, EC, DO, pH, Mn, and Heterotrophic Bacteria Sample Size n = 72 Storage tanks
Douhri et al. (2015) Effect of house storage on water’s quality in rural areas of Tangier-Tetuan Region (Morocco) To examine the effect of long storage on the chemical and bacteriological quality of water. Households storing water from twenty springs were selected for the investigation Tangier-Tetuan Region, Moroco Spring water Storage material Faecal coliforms, total coliforms, faecal streptococci, pH, EC, NO3, Nitrites, SO3 Sample Size n = 20 (Duplicated 6 times) Water storage vessels/ Tanks
Khan and AlMadani (2016) Assessment of microbial quality in household water tanks in Dubai, United Arab Emirates To assess the microbial contamination level of potable water in household water tanks in Dubai, UAE Dubai UAE Piped water (Municipal water) Tank cleaning, tank age E. coli, Salmonella gallinarum, P. aeruginosa, and Enterobacter aerogenes, pH, Temp, turbidity, and residual chlorine Sample size n = 40 Water tanks
Agensi et al. (2019) Contamination potentials of household water handling and storage practices in Kirundo Subcounty, Kisoro District, Uganda To assess the contamination potentials of
household water handling and storage practices in Kirundo
sub-county, Kisoro District, Uganda
Kisoro, Uganda Piped gravity water, unprotected water sources (i.e., springs, ponds, and rivers), and household drinking Storage material, time of storage, sanitation practices Total coliforms and E. coli Sample Size n = 344 Source and storage vessels
Nnaji et al. (2019) Storage-induced deterioration of domestic water quality The primary objective of the study
was to investigate the progressive deterioration of stored water quality. The secondary objective was to ascertain the
effect of supplemental rainwater and storage tank washing on the quality of stored water
Enugu, Nigeria Mobile tanker water Tank type, storage time, tanks location Heterotrophic bacteria, Total Coliform (TC), E. coli, Enterococci Sample Size n = 20 Storage tanks
Holt (2005) A survey of water storage practices and beliefs in households in Bonao, Dominican Republic in 2005 (1) Is faecal contamination of household drinking water affected by the characteristics of the container it is stored in? (2) Do household storage practices and beliefs affect E. coli levels in stored water? Banao, Dominican Republic Rainwater, piped water, well, rainwater, spring, river Container characteristics E. coli, TC, Turbidity Sample Size n = 1634 Storage containers, water sources
Pesewu et al. (2014) Bacteriological assessment of the quality of water stored in household poly tanks in student hostels in the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra, Ghana To assess the bacteriological contamination
levels of drinking water stored in household poly tanks in the student hostels at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital (KBTH), Accra, Ghana
Accra Ghana Piped Water Tank material, User of the water TC, faecal coliform, and E. coli Sample Size n = 100 Storage tanks
Levesque (2008) Assessment of microbiological quality of drinking water from household tanks in Bermuda. To assess microbial quality of drinking water in household tanks throughout Bermuda Bermuda Rainwater collected from the rooftop General habits about water use, system maintenance, TC, E. coli Simple random sampling n = 102 Tanks, taps
Rodrigo et al. (2010) A survey of the characteristics and maintenance of rainwater tanks in urban areas of South Australia. To generate information
regarding tank characteristics and degree of adherence to the recommended maintenance
procedures, which aid understanding of variability in rainwater quality data. To determine whether untreated rainwater can be considered as a safe water supply for household purposes including drinking.
South Australia Rain Water Tankage, tank size, tank material, user practices Turbidity, Al, Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn, Ca, Mg Sample Size n = 86 Tanks
Varghese and Jaya (2008) Drinking water quality assessment of rainwater harvested in ferrocement tanks in Alappuzha District, Kerala, India. To analyse the quality of stored rainwater harvested in Thykattusseri Panchayat in terms of physical, chemical, and Bacteriological characteristics Alappuzzha District, Kerala (India) Rain Water Tank/ vessel type Temp, colour, taste and odour pH, EC, turbidity, total alkalinity, hardness, Ca, Mg, DO, TS, TDS, TSS, Cl, SO4, NO3, PO 4, Na, K, Fe, and faecal coliforms Simple random sampling. Sample size n = 10 Rainwater storage tanks
Nunes et al. 2018 Water quality comparison between a supply network and household reservoirs in one of the oldest cities in Brazil To analyse the quality of water consumed by the population of São Mateus – ES, one of the oldest cities in Brazil, through microbiological and physicochemical parameters. To evaluate the impact of the use of household reservoirs on the quality of water stored in houses. São Mateus, Brazil Piped water Tank material, tank cleaning frequency, covering, age TC, E. coli, pH, free residual chlorine, turbidity Sample size n = 166 Rainwater storage tanks, source
Jagals et al. 2003 The effect of container-biofilm on the microbiological quality of water used from plastic household containers 1. To report on whether contaminant build-up in storage containers could be biological (biofilm), thereby indicating probable sustenance and growth of bacteria on the inner walls of containers.
2. To determine the effect of the biofilm on the health-related microbiological quality of the water in the containers.
Botshabelo, Free State Province of South Africa Piped Water Scrabbling of storage container Turbidity, E. coli, heterotrophic bacteria counts, TC, Clostridium Perfringens Sample size, supply and container (n = 48), (n = 150) respectively Supply and storage vessels