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Table 2 Average (±SD) effluent concentration, mass loading rate and percentage removal of pollutants in a series-connected two-stage HSSFCW system at different HRTs

From: Effectiveness of two-stage horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland planted with Cyperus alternifolius and Typha latifolia in treating anaerobic reactor brewery effluent at different hydraulic residence times

Operation Effluent concentration (mg/L) Mass loading rate (gm-2d−1)
TSS COD TN TP PO4 – P TSS COD TN TP PO4-P
1 day HRT 113.3 ± 5.82 376.2 ± 31.86 63.6 ± 11.27 34.2 ± 7.93 25.3 ± 5.3 26.4 ± 0.78 64.5 ± 5.2 11.5 ± 1.31 5 ± 0.91 3.8 ± 0.87
2 days HRT 70.7 ± 16.81 155.9 ± 20.77 37.3 ± 7.67 23 ± 5.89 12.4 ± 4.01 10.2 ± 2.11 24.9 ± 2.97 4.3 ± 0.75 2.1 ± 0.45 1.3 ± 0.34
3 days HRT 31.1 ± 9.57 63.8 ± 11.3 19.9 ± 3.6 15.1 ± 3.99 7.8 ± 3.39 5.2 ± 1.07 15.5 ± 1.91 2.1 ± 0.37 1.3 ± 0.47 0.8 ± 0.32
4 days HRT 15.7 ± 4.85 37.8 ± 9.97 10.1 ± 1.82 9.1 ± 3.66 3.81 ± 1.58 2.9 ± 0.42 11.6 ± 0.94 1.4 ± 0.19 0.9 ± 0.17 0.5 ± 0.15
5 days HRT 11 ± 3.79 29.7 ± 7 7.6 ± 1.75 6.1 ± 2.46 3.83 ± 1.25 2.1 ± 0.37 7.3 ± 0.83 0.8 ± 0.16 0.6 ± 0.12 0.4 ± 0.09
p value <0.05 <0.05 <0.05 <0.05 <0.05 <0.05 <0.05 <0.05 <0.05 <0.05
Operation Percentage removal efficiency (%)
TSS COD TN TP PO4–P
1 day HRT 47.8 ± 1.52 29.2 ± 2.11 32.9 ± 3.08 16.8 ± 1.91 18.4 ± 5.44
2 days HRT 57.8 ± 1.65 61.9 ± 4.26 46.9 ± 4.94 34.8 ± 3.39 41.5 ± 5.44
3 days HRT 75.8 ± 4.75 83.3 ± 1.55 61.1 ± 3.88 51.6 ± 3.13 59.8 ± 3.49
4 days HRT 83.5 ± 2.89a 90.1 ± 2.64a 77.5 ± 2.56a 68.9 ± 5.9a 77.5 ± 2.84a
5 days HRT 87.2 ± 2.54a 90.1 ± 2.25a 77.7 ± 1.71a 75.4 ± 6.14a 76.8 ± 4.97a
p value <0.05 <0.05 <0.05 <0.05 <0.05
  1. aAverage mass removal efficiencies of the same parameter in columns are insignificantly different