Skip to main content

Table 7 Embodied energy and carbon of construction materials

From: Analyzing ecological footprint of residential building construction in Adama City, Ethiopia

Material Embodied energy: MJ/kg Embodied carbon: C/kg References
Cement 5.9 0.248 Hammond and Jones (2008)
Sand 0.1 0.007 Baird et al. (1997); Alcorn (2003)
Aggregate (rock) 0.06 0.003 Alcorn (2003)
Bar and rod 24.6 0.466 Hammond and Jones (2008)
Stone (general) 0.04 0.002 Baird et al. (1997); Alcorn (2003)
HCB 0.9 0.108 Alcorn (2003)
Iron sheet 31.5 0.684 Hammond and Jones (2008)
MDF 11 0.161 Hammond and Jones (2008)
Timber (m3) 510 0.0 Daily civil (2017)
Metal (openings) (structural steel) 13.1 0.185 Hammond and Jones (2008)
Aluminum 192 8 Alcorn (2003)
Ceramic floor and wall tile 2.5 0.138 Baird et al. (1997); Alcorn (2003)
Glass 15.9 1.735 Alcorn (2003)
Paint 90.4 2.54 Baird et al. (1997)
Gypsum plastering 3.6 0.218 Alcorn (2003)
Water (m3) 13.038   Gerbens-Leenes (2016)