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Table 2 Mean concentrations of trace metals (mean ± SD, mg/kg dry weight) in sediment samples

From: Distribution and ecological risk assessment of trace metals in surface sediments from Akaki River catchment and Aba Samuel reservoir, Central Ethiopia

No. Area Cd Cr Cu Fe
Dry season
 S1 GAR at Entoto Kidanemihiret Monastery 2.5 ± 0.12 22.0 ± 1.11 5.7 ± 0.03 436.4 ± 0.37
 S2 GAR at Tirunesh Beijing Hospital 2.6 ± 0.16 28.4 ± 1.19 3.6 ± 0.01 844.8 ± 2.93
 S3 GAR below Akaki town 2.6 ± 0.14 23.1 ± 1.23 3.2 ± 0.01 557.0 ± 1.21
 S4 LAR above Gefersa reservoir 2.9 ± 0.16 16.2 ± 1.38 1.6 ± 0.01 406.4 ± 2.66
 S5 LAR at Lafto Bridge 2.7 ± 0.16 26.9 ± 1.24 15.3 ± 0.09 579.3 ± 1.19
 S6 LAR at Jugan kebele 2.1 ± 0.17 43.7 ± 1.66 2.2 ± 0.03 539.1 ± 2.57
 S7 Below the confluence point of GAR and LAR 2.6 ± 0.12 26.3 ± 1.29 5.7 ± 0.05 478.5 ± 4.22
 S8 Aba Samuel reservoir at the midpoint 2.6 ± 0.17 27.7 ± 1.45 5.2 ± 0.01 492.1 ± 2.48
 S9 Aba Samuel reservoir above the Dam 2.7 ± 0.15 21.0 ± 1.20 2.6 ± 0.01 437.3 ± 3.26
 S10 Aba Samuel reservoir below the Dam 2.5 ± 0.17 31.4 ± 1.35 4.0 ± 0.19 818.4 ± 3.59
 S11 Aba Samuel reservoir 1000 m downstream 2.8 ± 0.13 32.1 ± 1.23 7.4 ± 0.02 539.9 ± 3.83
  Pb Mn Ni Zn
 S1 GAR at Entoto Kidanemihiret Monastery 145.6 ± 0.34 423.5 ± 0.68 18.4 ± 1.15 17.6 ± 0.12
 S2 GAR at Tirunesh Beijing Hospital 134.1 ± 5.34 1103.9 ± 8.55 26.3 ± 0.90 18.6 ± 0.10
 S3 GAR below Akaki town 133.3 ± 4.68 576.9 ± 2.47 20.7 ± 0.98 29.1 ± 0.17
 S4 LAR above Gefersa reservoir 124.4 ± 3.57 373.3 ± 2.79 15.6 ± 1.64 7.0 ± 0.05
 S5 LAR at Lafto Bridge 170.8 ± 5.04 669.6 ± 3.66 26.2 ± 1.18 59.4 ± 0.25
 S6 LAR at Jugan kebele 256.4 ± 7.33 1319.2 ± 10.51 36.2 ± 1.37 5.2 ± 0.04
 S7 Below the confluence point of GAR and LAR 152.7 ± 3.50 464.8 ± 0.90 21.7 ± 0.97 13.7 ± 0.08
 S8 Aba Samuel reservoir at the midpoint 128.5 ± 2.80 591.7 ± 3.17 22.9 ± 1.62 4.0 ± 0.02
 S9 Aba Samuel reservoir above the Dam 129.1 ± 4.48 335.5 ± 1.62 20.4 ± 1.45 6.2 ± 0.02
 S10 Aba Samuel reservoir below the Dam 145.4 ± 1.41 1061.5 ± 0.90 25.4 ± 1.20 12.5 ± 0.06
 S11 Aba Samuel reservoir 1000 m downstream 171.2 ± 1.31 522.0 ± 3.11 26.3 ± 1.40 110.0 ± 0.55
No. Area Cd Cr Cu Fe
Rainy season
 S1 GAR at Entoto Kidanemihiret Monastery 2.6 ± 0.20 18.3 ± 1.02 2.1 ± 0.01 472.0 ± 2.38
 S2 GAR at Tirunesh Beijing Hospital 2.8 ± 0.13 29.4 ± 1.17 2.4 ± 0.02 1094.9 ± 2.99
 S3 GAR below Akaki town 2.8 ± 0.15 21.9 ± 0.80 3.3 ± 0.03 536.9 ± 1.52
 S4 LAR above Gefersa reservoir 3.1 ± 0.17 28.7 ± 1.39 4.5 ± 0.01 1442.0 ± 10.23
 S5 LAR at Lafto Bridge 2.6 ± 0.15 22.6 ± 0.91 5.3 ± 0.01 415.2 ± 3.35
 S6 LAR at ugan kebele 2.5 ± 0.14 22.8 ± 1.38 6.2 ± 0.03 442.5 ± 3.12
 S7 Below the confluence point of GAR and LAR 2.9 ± 0.16 23.4 ± 1.22 2.2 ± 0.01 524.2 ± 1.44
 S8 Aba Samuel reservoir at the midpoint 2.6 ± 0.18 26.0 ± 1.18 2.5 ± 0.02 551.8 ± 1.63
 S9 Aba Samuel reservoir above the Dam 2.7 ± 0.13 22.9 ± 0.96 2.5 ± 0.02 481.2 ± 3.93
 S10 Aba Samuel reservoir below the Dam 2.7 ± 0.14 23.8 ± 1.07 3.6 ± 0.01 499.1 ± 1.16
 S11 Aba Samuel reservoir 1000 m downstream 2.5 ± 0.13 29.1 ± 1.14 2.4 ± 0.02 541.2 ± 1.81
  Pb Mn Ni Zn
 S1 GAR at Entoto Kidanemihiret Monastery 111.5 ± 1.09 552.4 ± 1.94 14.6 ± 0.98 10.3 ± 0.02
 S2 GAR at Tirunesh Beijing Hospital 114.4 ± 1.77 1531.4 ± 3.77 24.0 ± 1.16 19.8 ± 0.02
 S3 GAR below Akaki town 122.5 ± 1.29 467.1 ± 3.44 20.7 ± 1.34 22.2 ± 0.18
 S4 LAR above Gefersa reservoir 101.4 ± 3.10 1833.4 ± 11.63 23.1 ± 1.09 25.7 ± 0.11
 S5 LAR at Lafto Bridge 125.9 ± 2.96 385.1 ± 2.84 19.9 ± 1.84 20.1 ± 0.09
 S6 LAR at Jugan kebele 133.7 ± 0.17 422.5 ± 1.58 19.9 ± 1.54 31.1 ± 0.05
 S7 Below the confluence point of GAR and LAR 132.6 ± 3.05 392.1 ± 1.56 21.2 ± 1.63 4.8 ± 0.04
 S8 Aba Samuel reservoir at the midpoint 127.4 ± 2.10 541.4 ± 2.20 20.9 ± 1.13 38.2 ± 0.21
 S9 Aba Samuel reservoir above the Dam 133.0 ± 2.10 393.4 ± 2.13 19.7 ± 1.19 17.2 ± 0.03
 S10 Aba Samuel reservoir below the Dam 132.7 ± 3.33 431.8 ± 1.42 21.7 ± 1.02 18.2 ± 0.02
 S11 Aba Samuel reservoir 1000 m downstream 131.0 ± 4.75 546.4 ± 2.37 20.6 ± 0.92 14.4 ± 0.04