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Table 3 Physicochemical parameter of surface water samples collected from settlements within the Birim River basin

From: Hydrochemical characteristics of surface water and ecological risk assessment of sediments from settlements within the Birim River basin in Ghana

  Minimum Maximum Mean Std. deviation Variance Skewness Kurtosis WHO standard
pH 6.36 7.02 6.68 0.18 0.03 0.27 0.84 6.5–8.5
Conductivity (μS/cm) 58.03 128.97 85.37 25.21 635.70 0.65 − 0.79 500
Turbidity (NTU) 31.60 3000.00 1652.86 1263.92 1597.38 − 0.12 − 1.89 5
Alkalinity (mg/L) 20.00 161.00 79.20 42.63 1817.29 0.44 0.14 200
TDS (mg/L) 29.03 64.33 42.60 12.60 158.74 0.64 − 0.79 < 600
Temperature (°C) 25.00 28.00 26.26 0.88 0.78 0.95 0.80 < 25 °C
TH (mg/L) 51.76 168.57 92.31 41.05 1685.14 1.12 0.15 500
Colour (PtCo) 364.62 34,615.35 19,071.33 14,583.67 2126.65 − 0.12 − 1.89 15
CaH (mg/L) 30.74 100.26 55.15 24.40 595.43 1.09 0.08
MgH (mg/L) 21.02 68.31 37.16 16.66 277.41 1.17 0.26 200
NO3 (mg/L) bd 1.00 0.38 0.31 0.10 0.55 − 1.22 45
K+ (mg/L) 0.40 3.90 1.00 1.07 1.15 2.66 7.50 12
Na+ (mg/L) 2.90 5.10 3.81 0.79 0.63 0.80 − 0.64 200
Cl (mg/L) 11.98 69.96 27.76 19.35 374.46 1.66 1.80 250
Mg2+ (mg/L) 5.13 16.66 8.98 4.04 16.33 1.19 0.30 50
Ca2+ (mg/L) 12.80 41.60 22.40 10.12 102.39 1.19 0.28 75
SO42− (mg/L) bd 1.00 0.41 0.33 0.11 − 0.06 − 2.08 250
CO32− (mg/L) 0.01 0.16 0.05 0.05 bd 1.95 4.34
HCO3 (mg/L) 19.99 160.84 78.63 43.20 1866.47 0.41 0.02 300
Free CO2 (mg/L) 17.57 44.63 30.02 9.20 84.63 − 0.34 − 0.82
Total CO2 (mg/L) 35.17 172.11 99.24 44.21 1954.48 − 0.14 − 0.72
Fe (mg/L) 0.63 6.44 3.41 1.88 3.55 − 0.10 − 0.95 0.3
Zn (mg/L) bd 0.02 0.01 0.00 0.00 − 0.24 − 0.31 3.0