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Table 4 Mean (± SD) of soil pH, SOC, TN, and Av.P in the 0–15 cm soil layer across different land use/land cover systems and altitudes

From: Effects of land use change on soil physicochemical properties in selected areas in the North West region of Cameroon

Soil property Altitude Land use types
Virgin forest Virgin savana Farming Park afforestation Grazing land Eucalyptus forest ANOVA
pH H2O High 5.35 ± .288 5.90 ± 0.20 5.21 ± 0.538   5.90 ± 0.200 5.57 ± 0.183 *
Mid 5.63 ± 0.125 5.65 ± .057 5.48 ± 0.540 5.70 ± 0.159 6.10 ± .316 5.56 ± 0.130 *
Low 6.50 ± 0.230 6.50 ± .000 5.87 ± 0.205   6.00 ± .496 5.77 ± 0.221 *
Total 5.82 ± 0.551 6.02 ± .380 5.51 ± 0.520 5.70 ± .159 6.00 ± 0.335 5.61 ± 0.183  
pH KCl High 4.45 ± o.288 4.65 ± 0.06 4.34 ± 0.27   4.65 ± 0.06 4.36 ± 0.23 *
Mid 4.65 ± 0.10 4.50 ± 0.00 4.58 ± 0.06 4.46 ± 0.12 4.60 ± 0.22 4.56 ± 0.11 *
Low 5.55 ± 0.17 5.30 ± 0.00 5.01 ± 0.32   4.88 ± 0.30 4.58 ± 0.15 *
Total 4.88 ± 0.53 4.81 ± 0.36 4.63 ± 0.34 4.46 ± 0.12 4.71 ± 0.23 4.49 ± 0.19  
Δ pH High − 0.90 ± 0.00 − 1.25 ± 0.17 − 0.88 ± 0.37   − 1.25 ± 0.17 − 1.21 ± 0.25  
Mid − 0.98 ± 0.15 − 1.15 ± 0.06 − 0.91 ± 0.56 − 1.24 ± 0.14 − 1.50 ± 0.34 − 1.00 ± 0.16  
Low − 0.95 ± 0.06 − 1.20 ± 0.00 − 0.86 ± 0.18   − 1.25 ± 0.38 − 1.20 ± 0.16  
Total − 0.94 ± 0.09 − 1.20 ± 0.10 − 0.89 ± 0.41 − 1.24 ± 0.14 − 1.29 ± 0.32 − 1.13 ± 0.22  
SOC (%) High 6.50 ± 1.62 4.83 ± 0.36 3.31 ± 0.57   4.83 ± 0.36 5.79 ± 2.11 *
Mid 4.58 ± 1.61 2.10 ± 1.15 3.04 ± 0.87 2.83 ± 0.88 2.50 ± 0.83 3.46 ± 0.95 *
Low 3.10 ± 0.81 3.10 ± 0.00 1.83 ± 0.90   1.90 ± 1.18 3.05 ± 0.53 *
Total 4.73 ± 1.93 3.34 ± 1.33 2.77 ± 0.99 2.83 ± 0.88 3.08 ± 1.52 4.31 ± 1.89  
C/N ratio High 21.91 ± 0.76 14.58 ± 2.39 13.06 ± 4.50   14.58 ± 2.39 24.74 ± 15.25  
Mid 16.95 ± 8.63 9.10 ± 3.82 17.68 ± 6.53 12.05 ± 4.76 13.37 ± 6.31 17.36 ± 7.18  
Low 11.18 ± 3.34 23.85 ± 0.00 8.65 ± 3.94   11.13 ± 9.31 14.00 ± 4.18  
Total 16.68 ± 6.67 15.84 ± 6.78 13.78 ± 6.43 12.05 ± 4.76 13.03 ± 6.18 19.64 ± 11.28  
TN (%) High 0.30 ± 0.06 0.34 ± 0.07 0.27 ± 0.06   0.34 ± 0.06 0.27 ± 0.11 *
Mid 0.29 ± 0.08 0.22 ± 0.03 0.18 ± 0.03 0.25 ± 0.07 0.20 ± 0.03 0.21 ± 0.05 Ns
Low 0.28 ± 0.01 0.13 ± 0.00 0.21 ± 0.05   0.19 ± 0.06 0.23 ± 0.04 Ns
Total 0.29 ± 0.05 0.23 ± 0.09 0.21 ± 0.06 0.25 ± 0.07 0.24 ± 0.08 0.24 ± 0.08  
Av.P (ppm) High 16.1 ± 3.00 19.1 ± 13.3 20.1 ± 10.3   19.1 ± 13.3 13.4 ± 7.19 Ns
Mid 14.6 ± 3.74 15.6 ± 4.91 15.5 ± 7.65 9.83 ± 3.53 9.33 ± 4.16 11.1 ± 4.31 Ns
Low 13.3 ± 2.25 5.30 ± 0.00 13.2 ± 5.61   8.90 ± 2.40 11.9 ± 2.39 Ns
Total 14.6 ± 3.02 13.3 ± 9.59 16.1 ± 8.17 9.83 ± 3.53 12.4 ± 8.87 12.2 ± 5.28  
  1. Means in the same row followed by the same letters are not significantly different at 1% significance
  2. Ns non significance, MC moisture content, BD Bulk density
  3. * Significant at P < 0.01