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Table 4 Non-cancer hazard quotient (HQ) and hazard index (HI) values of elements in water and fish samples

From: Human health and environmental assessments of small-scale and artisanal mining activities in the Gold City of Ijeshaland, Southwestern Nigeria

  Surface water Groundwater Fish
Mean SD Min Max Mean SD Min Max Mean SD Min Max
 B 1.8E−03 6.7E−04 9.6E−04 3.4E−03 4.0E−03 4.9E−03 4.0E−04 1.4E−02 5.6E−04 1.6E−04 4.1E−04 7.7E−04
 Be 5.0E−04 3.3E−04 4.0E−04 1.8E−03 2.5E−03 3.2E−03 4.0E−04 9.3E−03 2.5E−04 3.0E−04 4.9E−05 6.9E−04
 Se 2.4E−03 1.2E−03 1.6E−03 5.1E−03 3.0E−02 3.0E−02 1.6E−03 7.4E−02 8.7E−03 8.9E−03 2.0E−04 1.9E−02
 Sr 4.7E−03 2.5E−03 9.8E−04 9.8E−03 1.5E−02 1.4E−02 5.9E−04 3.7E−02 3.8E−03 5.7E−03 6.0E−04 1.2E−02
 Tl 5.7E−03 3.8E−03 2.0E−03 1.6E−02 4.3E−02 4.9E−02 4.0E−03 1.4E−01 5.1E−03 6.6E−03 2.5E−04 1.5E−02
 U 2.1E−04 1.7E−04 1.1E−04 6.4E−04 5.8E−04 7.7E−04 1.1E−04 2.2E−03 6.0E−04 2.4E−04 3.4E−04 9.2E−04
 HI 0.015 0.009 0.006 0.037 0.095 0.102 0.007 0.277 0.019 0.022 0.002 0.048
 B 5.3E−03 2.0E−03 2.9E−03 1.0E−02 1.2E−02 1.5E−02 1.2E−03 4.2E−02 3.4E−03 9.7E−04 2.5E−03 4.6E−03
 Be 1.5E−03 9.9E−04 1.2E−03 5.3E−03 7.4E−03 9.5E−03 1.2E−03 2.8E−02 1.5E−03 1.8E−03 3.0E−04 4.1E−03
 Se 7.1E−03 3.7E−03 4.8E−03 1.5E−02 9.1E−02 9.0E−02 4.8E−03 2.2E−01 5.2E−02 5.3E−02 1.2E−03 1.1E−01
 Sr 1.4E−02 7.6E−03 2.9E−03 2.9E−02 4.6E−02 4.3E−02 1.8E−03 1.1E−01 2.3E−02 3.4E−02 3.6E−03 7.4E−02
 Tl 1.7E−02 1.1E−02 6.0E−03 4.8E−02 1.3E−01 1.5E−01 1.2E−02 4.2E−01 3.1E−02 4.0E−02 1.5E−03 8.9E−02
 U 6.4E−04 5.1E−04 3.2E−04 1.9E−03 1.7E−03 2.3E−03 3.2E−04 6.7E−03 3.6E−03 1.4E−03 2.1E−03 5.5E−03
 HI 0.046 0.026 0.018 0.110 0.286 0.306 0.021 0.830 0.114 0.132 0.011 0.290
 B 7.9E−03 3.0E−03 4.3E−03 1.5E−02 1.8E−02 2.2E−02 1.8E−03 6.3E−02 7.9E−03 3.0E−03 4.3E−03 1.5E−02
 Be 2.3E−03 1.5E−03 1.8E−03 7.9E−03 1.1E−02 1.4E−02 1.8E−03 4.2E−02 2.3E−03 1.5E−03 1.8E−03 7.9E−03
 Se 1.1E−02 5.6E−03 7.2E−03 2.3E−02 1.4E−01 1.4E−01 7.2E−03 3.3E−01 1.1E−02 5.6E−03 7.2E−03 2.3E−02
 Sr 2.1E−02 1.1E−02 4.4E−03 4.4E−02 6.9E−02 6.4E−02 2.6E−03 1.7E−01 2.1E−02 1.1E−02 4.4E−03 4.4E−02
 Tl 2.6E−02 1.7E−02 9.0E−03 7.2E−02 1.9E−01 2.2E−01 1.8E−02 6.3E−01 2.6E−02 1.7E−02 9.0E−03 7.2E−02
 U 9.6E−04 7.7E−04 4.8E−04 2.9E−03 2.6E−03 3.5E−03 4.8E−04 1.0E−02 9.6E−04 7.7E−04 4.8E − 04 2.9E − 03
 HI 0.069 0.039 0.027 0.165 0.429 0.459 0.032 1.245 0.069 0.039 0.027 0.165