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Table 4 Determinants of joint adoption of agroforestry and non-farm activity

From: Agroforestry and farm income diversification: synergy or trade-off? The case of Ethiopia

Variables Bivariate probit model Joint marginal effects of both activities
Agroecudum Doffornonfarm
Dependent variables  
 AGROECUDUM (agroforestry adoption)  
 DOFFORNONFARM (non-farm activity)  
Explanatory variables  
 DECONINCENT 1.263** (0.506) 0.770** (0.370) 0.295** (0.133)
 LNAVHOMEDIST −4.231 (0.344) −0.296 (0.350) −0.118 (0.139)
 LNAVMRKTDIST −2.499* (0.504) −1.172** (0.415) −0.068* (0.165)
 LNROADISTA −2.134*** (0.331) −0.443** (0.281) −0.176** (0.112)
 DMALE 0.937** (0.475) 0.491 (0.458) 0.189 (0.169)
 LNRESPOAGE 0.113 (0.746) −0.138 (1.049) −0.055 (0.416)
 FSIZE 0.046 (0.146) −0.111 (0.126) −0.044 (0.049)
 DEPRATIO −0.559 (1.529) −1.615 (1.155) −0.640 (0.458)
 PROPOSTUDENT 2.131* (1.255) 0.047 (0.929) 0.018 (0.369)
 DUEDU2 −0.848 (0.463) −0.551 (0.387) −0.213 (0.143)
 DUEDU3 −0.503 (0.531) 0.314 (0.473) 0.124 (0.186)
 FARMSIZE 2.682** (1.238) −0.060 (0.557) −0.024 (0.220)
 NONCROPFARM −1.310 (1.77) 1.772 (1.367) 0.703 (0.542)
 DLANDEGRA 0.298 (0.361) −0.386 (0.331) −0.152 (0.128)
 DULANDRIGHT 0.287 (0.418) 1.045*** (0.376) 0.397*** (0.130)
 NUMOX 0.745** (0.35) −0.458* (0.249) −0.181* (0.098)
 LNTOTLIVESTOKVAL 0.745 (0.676) 0.224 (0.542) 0.089 (0.215)
 LNEQUEXPER −0.728** (0.368) 0.485* (0.265) 0.192* (0.105)
 LNTOTOFFORNONFARMY 0.147** (0.063) 0.105*** (0.021)
 CREDITDUM 0.114 (0.164) 0.045 (0.138)
 DKUDMI −0.315 (0.712) −0.412 (0.550) −0.159 (0.205)
 DBACHIMA −2.94*** (0.979) −1.006* (0.535) −0.363** (0.161)
 DGORAGOT −1.302 (0.759) 0.175 (0.604) 0.069 (0.240)
 _CONSTANT −11.331 (6.96) −6.393 (6.054)
Number of obs = 136
Wald χ2 (48) = 57.17
Rho = 0.98*** Prob > χ2 = 0.0000
  1. ***, **, and * indicates significant level at 1, 5, and 10%, respectively