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Table 1 Definition of variables and their expected signs

From: Agroforestry and farm income diversification: synergy or trade-off? The case of Ethiopia

Variable name Definition of variables Expected sign
Dependent variables
 Model: AGROECUDUM and DOFFORNONFARM Dependent dummies weather a household simultaneously adopt agroforestry and non-farming income generating activities  
Independent variables
 DMALE A dummy for sex of the household head (1=male; 0=female) + (−)
 LNRESPOAGE Age of the household head + (−)
 FSIZE Family size of the household + (−)
 DEPRATIO Proportion of family members whose age is ≤15 and ≥65 to total family size + (−)
 PROPOSTUDENT Proportion of family members who are students + (−)
 DUEDU1 A dummy for household head level of education (=1 illiterate; =0 otherwise)
 DUEDU2 A dummy for household head level of education (=1 elementary; =0 otherwise) + (−)
 DUEDU3 A dummy for household head level of education (=1 secondary and above;=0 otherwise) +
 FARMSIZE Total farm size of the household +
 NONCROPFARM Farmland allocated for non -food crop farming (like chat, vegetable) + (−)
 DLANDEGRA A dummy for land degradation (=1 if the farmland is degraded; =0 otherwise) +
 DULANDRIGHT A dummy for land right (=1 if the household perceive moderately secured; =0 otherwise) +
 DECONINCENT A dummy for economic incentive (=1 if there is economic incentive of agroforestry; =0 otherwise) +
 LNUMOX Number of ox the household owns +
 LNTOTLIVESTOKVAL Estimated livestock value (in 2007/2008 current market price, in log form) + (−)
 LNEQUEXPER Number of years the household adopts agroforestry in his/her farmland s (in log form) + (−)
 LNTOTOFFORNONFARMY Total income of non-farm activity (in log form)
 AVHOMEDISTA Average home distance from the farm plot (in Minutes walk)
 AVMARKETDISTA Average home distance from the proxy market (in Minutes walk)
 AVROADISTA Average home distance from the main road (in Minutes walk) +
 CREDITDUM A dummy for credit service (=1 if the household has access for credit service; =0 otherwise) +
 DAMBOMESK Location of farm household is in Ambomesk (1 = yes; 0 = no) dummy +
 DKUDMI Location of farm household is in Kudmi (1 = yes; 0 = no) dummy +
 DBACHIMA Location of farm household is in Bachima (1 = yes; 0 = no) dummy +
 DGORAGOT Location of farm household is in Goragot (1 = yes; 0 = no) dummy
  1. The maximum likelihood estimation techniques estimate the above models; and the analyses of the models are carried out using the statistical package of STATA 13 version