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Table 5 Ecosystem service values of Zhifanggou watershed from 1938 to 1999

From: Variation in ecosystem service values in response to land use changes in Zhifanggou watershed of Loess plateau: a comparative study

ESVs Years
1938 1958 1978 1987 1999
Forest ESV (104$/year) 113.75 0.18 2.8 92.69 101.92
% of Change - -99.84 1455.56 3210.36 9.96
Average Annual % of Change - -4.99 72.78 356.71 0.83
Grassland ESV (104$/year) 5.3 7.46 33.6 5.28 6.65
% of Change - 40.75 350.4 -84.29 25.95
Average Annual % of Change - 2.04 17.52 -9.37 2.16
Cropland ESV (104$/year) 2.72 34.64 8.87 7.58 4.86
% of Change - 1173.53 -74.39 -14.54 -35.88
Average Annual % of Change - 58.68 -3.72 -1.62 -2.99
Water body ESV (104$/year) 0 1.36 1.36 1.36 0.00
% of Change - - 0.00 0.00 -100.00
Average Annual % of Change - - 0.00 0.00 -8.33
Barren land ESV (104$/year) 0 0.11 0.10 0.10 0.00
% of Change - - -9.09 0.00 -100.00
Average Annual % of Change - - -0.45 0.00 -8.33
Total ESV (104$/year) 121.77 43.75 46.73 107.01 113.44
% of Change - -64.07 6.81 129.00 6.01
Average Annual % of Change - -3.20 0.34 14.33 0.50