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Table 2 Ratio between ecosystem service value and the values of food production provided by agricultural lands (according to Xie et al. 2003 )

From: Variation in ecosystem service values in response to land use changes in Zhifanggou watershed of Loess plateau: a comparative study

Ecosystem service Forest Grassland Cropland Water body Barren lands
Gas regulation 3.5 0.8 0.5 0.9 0
Climate regulation 2.7 0.9 0.89 8.78 0
Water supply 3.2 0.8 0.6 17.94 0.03
Soil formation and retention 3.9 1.95 1.46 0.86 0.02
Waste treatment 1.31 1.31 1.64 18.18 0.01
Biodiversity protection 3.26 1.09 0.71 2.495 0.34
Food 0.1 0.3 1 0.2 0.01
Raw material 2.6 0.05 0.1 0.04 0
Recreation and culture 1.28 0.04 0.01 4.945 0.01